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Yokosho 1-go Reconnaissance Seaplane
The Yokosho 1-go Reconnaissance Seaplane was designed to be operated from a submarine, and was successfully tested but didn't enter production.
The aircraft was based on the Heinkel U 1, better known as the Casper U 1 after its designer, Carl Casper. He had a background in the aircraft industry, having once owned Hanseatische Flugzeugwerke (better known as Hansa-Brandenburg). One U 1 was imported into Japan in 1923, and it was used as a pattern for the 1-go.
The 1-go was a cantilever biplane. The upper and lower wings were both single pieces and could be removed from the fuselage, as could the twin floats. All five items could then be stored in a 7.4m by 1.7m hanger that could be carried on a suitable submarine. The main structure was a mix of metal and wood. The fuselage had a light metal skin, the wings were fabric covered.
The aircraft was designed to be easy to assemble or disassemble, essential for use on a submarine. It could be assembled by five men in four minutes, and airborne in 15 minutes. It could be dismantled in 2 minutes, although even that might not be quick enough if its submarine was under attack.
The sole prototype was completed in 1927. It was successfully tested from the submarine I-21 in 1927-28, but work then moved onto the Yohosho 2-go Reconnaissance Seaplane, which entered service as the Navy Type 91 Reconnaissance Seaplane (E6Y1).
Engine: Gasuden-Le Rhône 9 cylinder air-cooled rotary engine
Span: 23ft 7.5in
Length: 20ft 4.25in
Height: 7ft 10in
Empty weight: 881lb
Loaded weight: 1,146lb
Max speed: 95.57mph
The air arsenal's roots go back to 1869 when the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) established a naval arsenal at Yokosuka, about 13 miles south of Yokohama on Tokyo Bay. The arsenal provided ship building, repair and replenishment to the Japanese Navy. It was also a storage depot where munitions and other assorted supplies were brought as they were purchased. 
When a number of foreign aircraft were purchased for evaluation, the Navy brought them to the arsenal for processing. The arsenal assembled the aircraft from their shipping boxes, and when assembled, they were flown by the pilots who had been sent abroad for flying lessons and evaluate the aircraft flown. 
Modifications to these aircraft were done as weaknesses were found, or when an improvement was incorporated. To facilitate this work, the IJN established the Aeroplane Factory, Ordnance Department at the arsenal's torpedo factory in May 1913. 
The next year, the first acronym was used was Yokosho, a contraction of "Yokosuka Kaigun Kōshō" (Yokosuka Naval Arsenal). The arsenal was renamed "Kaigun Kōkū Shiken-sho" (Naval Establishment for Aeronautical Research) in December 1919. The name "Kaigun Gijutsu Kenkyūsho" (Naval Technical Research Institute) was assigned by April, 1923, when the arsenal was moved to Tsukiji with several other Naval support units. The entire Tsukiji facility was destroyed in the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake. Several names were used when the navy began establishment of the arsenal. Research was started again in 1924 when several aircraft were evaluated. Under the command of the newly formed Naval Air Headquarters, the Kaigun Kokusho (Naval Air Arsenal) was formed at Yokosuka on 1 April 1932. A large amount of draftsmen and Designers were transferred from the Hiro Naval Arsenal, ending aircraft production there. 
During World War II, the arsenal was responsible for the design of several IJN aircraft, although the arsenal itself did not manufacture more than a few prototypes of the aircraft it designed. Its designs were mass-produced by companies such as Aichi Kokuki, Watanabe Tekkōjo steel foundry, (renamed in 1943 to Kyūshū Hikōki Kabushiki-kaisha ( 九州飛行機株式会社 , Kyushu Aircraft Company Ltd ) (Kyushu Armaments)), and the Hiro Naval Arsenal (Hiro Kaigun Kōshō, which is often abbreviated as Hirosho).  Aircraft designed by the arsenal are usually designated by the manufacturer's letter "Y" for "Yokosuka". [ citation needed ]
An example of the above is the Yokosuka D4Y1 Carrier Attack Bomber Suisei Model 11 (Suisei - Comet) which was mainly produced by Aichi. The D4Y1 and later models were also produced by Dai-Jūichi Kaigun Kōkū-shō (11th Naval Arsenal) at Hiro. 
Japanese Aircraft of WWII
The Japanese Navy had a strong interest in the use of submarine-borne reconnaissance seaplanes, and one of several designs for this type was begun at the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal in 1925, based on a Heinkel U 1 submarine-borne seaplane designed by Carl Caspar, former owner of the Hanseatischen Flugzweugwerke in Germany. One of these aircraft, better known as the Caspar U 1, had been imported in 1923 and the Yokosho design was a near duplicate in layout and dimensions.
This Yokosho design was a cantilever biplane having one-piece upper and lower wings without interplane struts. The structure was of metal and wood, with light metal fuselage skinning and the wings were fabric covered. The twin-floats and wings were detachable from the fuselage and these components could be stowed in a tubelike hangar 7.4 m (24.7 ft) long and 1.7 m (5.5 ft) in diameter. The aircraft could be assembled in 4 min by 5 mechanics and became airborne in a total of 15 to 16 min. Dismantling was accomplished in 2 min by five mechanics.
Completed in 1927, this was the smallest aircraft in Japan. Although small, it was a rugged aircraft of good design with light-weight metal skinning. During 1927-28 it was tested aboard the submarine I-21 which was equipped with a hangar for this purpose, but the aircraft was not developed further. The experience gained with this project was useful in the later development of the Yokosho 2-go Reconnaissance Seaplane. Similar research at this time was being conducted in the United States and Great Britain, but none of the projects were developed to an operational level.
Manufacturer: Yokosuka Kaigun Ko-sho (Yokosuka Naval Arsenal).
Type: Single-engined carrier-borne reconnaissance seaplane.
Crew (1): Pilot in open cockpit.
Powerplant: One 80 hp Gasuden-built Le Rhone nine-cylinder rotary engine, driving a four-blade wooden propeller.
Dimensions: Span 7.20 m (23 ft 7 1/2 in) length 6.205 m (20 ft 4 1/4 in) height 2.39 m (7 ft 10 in) wing area 15.2 sq m (163.616 sq ft).
Weights: Empty 400 kg (881 lb) loaded 520 kg (1,146 lb) wing loading 34.2 kg/sq m (7 lb/sq ft) power loading 6.5 kg/hp (14.3 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed 83 kt (95.57 mph) endurance 2 hr.
Production: A total of 1 1-go prototype was built by Yokosuka Kaigun Ko-sho in 1927.
Japanese Aircraft of WWII
During the First World War a number of Yokosho seaplane designs were created by Lieut. Chikuhei Nakajima with the assistance of Lieut. Kishichi Umakoshi, and there was much test flying associated with the improvements of these designs. Using foreign techniques, Umakoshi designed a reconnaissance seaplane with the emphasis on stability and control. The first prototype was completed in the autumn of 1917 and flight tests began in early 1918. Better performance was achieved with this aircraft than with any previous Japanese Navy aircraft.
Production began immediately at the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal and four aircraft were built in 1918. Confirming acceptance as a Navy type, they were officially designated Ro-go Ko-gata. Originally powered by a 140 hp Salmson engine, the engine was soon changed to the 200 hp Salmson, followed by the 200 hp Mitsubishi-built Type Hi (Hispano-Suiza) engines which were used in production aircraft. The Ro-go Ko-gata was the first of the Japanese Navy's aircraft to be put into production. The Ro-go Ko-gata was a single-engined twin-float biplane of wooden construction, the crew of two being in open cockpits.
In April 1919 three of these aircraft were converted from two-seaters to single-seaters to increase their fuel capacity. In this configuration they made a record-breaking long-distance flight from Oppama, to Kure near Hiroshima, Chinhae (35.4 km/22 miles west of Pusan in Korea), Sasebo in western kyushu, and return to Oppama. On this flight Sub-Lieut Kanjo Akashiba set a record by flying from Sasebo to Oppama on 20 April, 1919, an indirect distance of 1,300 km (808 miles in 11 hr 35 min at an average speed of 61 kt (70.1 mph).
The manufacture of these aircraft continued at Yokosuka Naval Arsenal until 1921. In 1920 production was begun by Aichi and Nakajima, making this the first naval aircraft built by Nakajima. In November 1923, to conform with a new Navy designation system for aircraft, the official Navy designation for these aircraft was changed to Yokosho-Type Reconnaissance Seaplane.
This first mass-produced aircraft for the Navy was widely used together with the Hansa Reconnaissance Seaplane over the period 1921 to 1926.
In appreciation of his success, which began with the prototype design, Lieut. Kishichi Umakoshi was given special recognition by the Minister of the Navy, the first for an aircraft designer.
The entry into service of the Yokosho Ro-go Ko-gata, with its increased speed and maneuverability, made the Farman pusher seaplanes then in service obsolete, and they were taken out of service. In time, a number of these aircraft were released for civil use on such duties as mail carriers. Some were in service as late as 1928.
Manufacturer: Yokosuka Kaigun Ko-sho (Yokosuka Naval Arsenal).
Type: Single-engined reconnaissance Seaplane.
Crew (2): Pilot and observer/gunner in open cockpits.
Powerplant: (prototype) One 130-140 hp Mitsubishi-built Type Sa (Salmson M-9 ) nine-cylinder water-cooled radial engine, driving a two-balde wooden propeller, (pre-production) one 200 hp Mitsubishi-built Type Sa (Salmson M-7) nine-cylinder water-cooled radial engine, driving a two-blade wooden propeller, (production) one 200-220 hp Mitsubish-built Type Hi (Hispano-Suiza E) eight-cylinder vee water-cooled engine, driving a two-blade wooden propeller.
Armament: One rear-firing flexibly-mounted 7.7 mm (0.303 in) machine-gun in dorsal cockpit.
Dimensions: Span (prototype) 15.53 m (50 ft 11 1/2 in), (Production) 15.692 m (51 ft 6 in) length (prototype) 10.172 m (33 ft 4 1/2 in), (production) 33 ft 4 in) height (prototype) 3.68m (12 ft 1 in), (production) 3.666 m (12 ft) wing area 48.22 sq m (519.052 sq ft).
Weights: Empty (prototype) 1,211 kg (2,669 lb), (production) 1,070 kg (2,358 lb) loaded (prototype) 1,676 kg (3,694 lb), (production) 1,628 kg (3,589 lb) wing loading (prototype) 34.75 kg/sq m (7.1 lb/sq ft), (production) 33.76 kg/sq m (6.9 lb?sq ft) power loading (prototype) 12.9 kg/hp (28.4 lb/hp), (production) 8.1 kg.hp (17.8 lb/hp).
Performance: Maximum speed (prototype) 75 kt (86.3 mph), (production) 84 kt (96.72 mph) climb to 500 m (1,640 ft) (prototype) in 4 min 12 sec, (production) 4 min range (production) 420 nm (483 st miles) endurance (production) 5 hr.
Production: A total of 218 Ro-go Ko-gata were built as follows:
Yokosuka Kaigun Ko-sho [Yokosho] (Yokosuka Naval Arsenal:
32 - production aircraft between 1917-1921 (Type Sa and Type Hi engines).
Special Ops Want to Turn the C-130 Into a Seaplane. Really.
The Hercules, one of the most versatile planes in aviation history, isn't finished yet.
- U.S. Special Operations Command (SOCOM) wants a seaplane and suggests a modified C-130J Super Hercules could fit the bill.
- A Super Hercules could allow special ops forces to reach islands and coastal areas quicker than current capabilities allow.
- Russia and China, two countries SOCOM is reorienting to face in the future, have already developed their own seaplanes.
The C-130 Hercules transport is one of the longest-serving, most versatile aircraft in the history of flight. Now, the six-decade-old airframe could pick up yet another role: seaplane.
✈ You love badass planes. So do we. Let&rsquos nerd out over them together.
At a virtual special operations conference this week, U.S. Special Operations Command (SOCOM) said it would like a seaplane, and claims a modified C-130 would fit the bill nicely.
Lockheed Martin (then just Lockheed) designed the C-130 Hercules in the early 1950s as a four-engine tactical airlifter with a ramp in the back for loading large, otherwise oversize cargo. The plane&rsquos long range and large, roomy interior made it easily adaptable into other roles, including that of armed gunship, firefighter, search and rescue, weather reconnaissance, maritime patrol, and aerial refueling.
C-130s have been launched from the decks of aircraft carriers and fitted with rockets to shorten both takeoffs and landings.
The Japanese Navy Arsenal at Yokosuka became involved in aircraft production in 1913, when an aeroplane factory was set up, with its first work being to build several Maurice Farman and Curtiss Seaplanes. Ώ] It continued to build aircraft under license, including more Farman aircraft and several Short 184 seaplanes, as well as prototypes of several of its own designs. ΐ]
In 1917, Chikuhei Nakajima, chief designer of the Yokosuka Arsenal aircraft factory designed a new reconnaissance floatplane, with a prototype of the new design, powered by a 140 hp (104 kW) Salmson water-cooled radial engine, making its maiden flight early in 1918. Test results were good, and the type was ordered into production as the Ro-go Ko-gata. [a] Α]
The Ro-go Ko-gata was a three-bay biplane of wood and fabric construction, with twin main floats and wings that folded backwards for storage. Its crew of two sat in separate, closely spaced cockpits. Initial production aircraft were powered by 200 hp (149 kW) Salmson engines, but the majority of production aircraft were fitted with 200–220 hp (149–164 kW) Mitsubishi-built Hispano-Suiza 8 V-8 engines. Α] A total of 218 aircraft were built in total, Β] 32 by the Yokosuka arsenal, 80 by Aichi and 106 by the Nakajima Aircraft Company, with production continuing until 1924. Γ] It was the first locally designed aircraft to be built in large numbers for the Japanese Navy. Α]
Seaplanes Go to War
As the world descended into war in 1914, flying boats and float planes proved their value.
For the U.S., these water-bound planes largely operated out of coastal military installations, whereas the British used specialized vessels called tenders. In these early days of aviation, seaplanes were largely relegated to surveillance and reconnaissance and often could only fly during calm weather.
&ldquoReconnaissance work is undoubtedly the main work of seaplanes operating with a fleet,&rdquo wrote Lieutenant (Junior Grade) R. C. Saufley in a treatise outlining the need for seaplanes in 1915.
But as the war continued, seaplanes would soon be attacking enemy ships. Just like other aircraft utilized over battles on land, early bombing runs conducted by seaplanes saw pilots literally dropping the bombs by hand as they flew over their opponent&rsquos vessels at low altitude.
On January 1, 1914, the British founded the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS), which would be responsible for Britain&rsquos seaplanes throughout the war. Operating aircraft like the Sopwith Schneider, the Norman Thompson N.T.4 and N.T.4A, and later the Felixstowe F-type, the RNAS contained 50 squadrons before it was later absorbed into the new Royal Air Force in 1918. It was the RNAS, operating a Short 184 torpedo-bomber seaplane, that first managed the feat of sinking a ship with an airplane-launched torpedo in August of 1915 (though the use of torpedoes on aircraft was later considered too dangerous).
The U.S. also fielded a collection of seaplanes, like the Aeromarine 40, the Benoist XIV, and a variety of aircraft from Curtiss&mdashlike the H-16, NC (Nancy), and Wanamaker.
But the Central Powers had its own collection of planes that rivaled Britain&rsquos impressive fleet. German aviation technology was often superior to that of the British or Americans, and over land, German aviators dominated the fight. But over sea, German seaplanes like the Friedrichshafen FF.33 and FF.33I (bomber and fighter iterations of the same aircraft) had technological advantages that didn&rsquot necessarily translate to victory.
Skirmishes between German and British seaplanes were rare, but one notable battle took place on June 4, 1918. Five RNAS Felixstowe F-2As and a single Curtiss H-12 squared off against a German force of 14 aircraft of different types. The British, although outnumbered, won the day by downing six German planes, forcing their retreat. A British Curtiss H-12 was the only British casualty.
Japanese Aircraft of WWII
In March 1932 Aichi and Kawanishi began the competitive design of a new three-seat long-range reconnaissance f1oatplane. This was required by the Imperial Japanese Navy air force as a replacement for the Navy Type 90-3 Reconnaissance Seaplane which, built as the Kawanishi E5K, had proved to be disappointing in service use. A fabric-covered equal-span single-bay biplane of conventional design and construction, the Kawanishi E7K1 was carried on large strut-mounted twin floats, accommodated a crew of three in tandem open cockpits, and was powered by a 620-hp (462-kW) Hiro Type 91 'arrow' engine. First flown on 6 February 1933, the prototype passed its manufacturer's tests satisfactorily and in late May 1933 was handed over to the Japanese navy for service trials in competition with the AB-6 developed by Aichi to meet the same requirement. Navy evaluation left little doubt that Kawanishi's new floatplane was the better of the two, but no production order was forthcoming until after the receipt of a second prototype in late 1933. Some six months later, during May 1934, the E7K1 was ordered into production and given the designation Navy Type 94 Reconnaissance Seaplane. When it began to enter service in early 1935, the E7K1 very soon gained a good reputation for ease of handling, both on the water and in the air, but performance of the Hiro engine, derived from a French Lorraine powerplant, was disappointing. As a result, late production aircraft had a more powerful (750hp/ 559-kW) version of the Hiro Type 91 installed, but this proved no more reliable and with E7K1 production then totalling 183 (57 built by Nippon) Kawanishi began to look at alternatives.
During 1938 the company built a prototype E7K2 which was generally similar to the earlier production aircraft, but with the unreliable Hiro engine replaced by a Mitsubishi Zuisei (holy star) 11 radial engine. Flown for the first time during August 1938, this was ordered into production by the navy some three months later under the designation Navy Type 94 Reconnaissance Seaplane Model 2 at the same time the E7K1 version was retrospectively redesignated as the Navy Type 94 Reconnaissance Seaplane Model 1. Production of the E7K2 totalled about 350 aircraft, some 60 built by Nippon, and the E7K as a type saw extensive use for both beach- and ship-based operations from 1935 until the beginning of the Pacific war. By that time the E7K1s had been relegated to second-line duties, but the radial-engined higher-performance (some 23 mph/37 km/h faster) E7K2s remained in first-line roles until early 1943. These included antisubmarine patrol and inshore convoy escort, tasks for which they had never been intended, and many were still in use in liaison and training roles when the war ended. One more job remained, for like many obsolete types the E7Ks were pressed into service during the late stages of the war to take part in desperate kamikaze attacks. When, in the second half of 1942, codenames began to be allocated to Japanese aircraft to provide a simple and easily pronounceable means of referring to a type, the E7K2 became known as 'AIf', male Christian names being allocated to aircraft that were deployed basically as fighters or reconnaissance seaplanes.
Production version with a Hiro Type 91 engine, 183 built (including 57 built by Nippon Hikoki K.K.)
Re-engined version with a Mitsubishi Zuisei 11 radial engine, about 350 built (including 60 built by Nippon Hikoki K.K.)
Length: 34 ft 5½ in (10.50 m)
Wingspan: 45 ft 11¼ in (14.00 m)
Height: 15ft 10½ in (4.85 m)
Wing area: 469.305 ft² (43.60 m²)
Empty weight: 4,630 lb (2100 kg)
Loaded weight: 7,275 lb (3300 kg)
Powerplant: 1× Mitsubishi MK2 Zuisei 11 14 cylinder radial engine, 870 hp (649 kW)
Maximum speed: 275 km/h (171 mph)
Cruise speed: 100 kt at 1000 m (115 mph at 3,280 ft)
Service ceiling: 7,060 m (23,165 ft)
Wing loading: 15.5 lb/ft² (75.7 kg/m²)
Guns: 1× fixed and 2× trainable 7.7mm (0.303in) Type 92 machine guns
Bombs: 120 kg (265 lb) of bombs
Adriatic seaplanes – planes without airfields
For most of us, seaplanes seem an echo from the past, a remnant of times gone by, when travel was more adventurous, more glamorous. But they’re also visions of the future for Europe’s many islands and remote coastal areas – for example Scotland’s west coast, the Croatian islands, Italy and Greece. And around the rest of the world, too – for the Maldives, Canada, Alaska, Indonesia, the Caribbean, and India, seaplanes connect places that have no airfields.
Arriving into Jelsa seaport
This week, European Coastal Airlines adds an international flavour to its seaplane services for the Croatian coast & islands, with a crossing to Italy. You can now set off from downtown Split, and arrive in Ancona on a flight lasting just under an hour. What an exciting set of possibilities that opens up! We only recently took our first flight on ECA, going from Jelsa over to Split in 13 minutes or so. Not quite to the downtown seaport as expected, because of a bura and high waves that day, but still a speedy transfer compared to the ferry, and starting at a much more civilised time!
The Adriatic has a long history of seaplanes, going right back to the very first attempts to take off from water. In the early days of flight, it was tricky finding suitably flat, clear areas of land, so many early pioneers thought to add floats to their planes, making use of water as a runway.
Our pilots – Paul from Texas, and Maria from Denmark
In 1910, Frenchman Henri Fabre made the first successful take-off from water, flying his seaplane “Le Canard” for 500 metres near Marseilles. That same year, Josef Mickl was constructing his own version of a seaplane in Pula, on the Istrian coast. By the following year, the Austro-Hungarian authorities set up a naval aviation base on the island of Santa Catarina, off Pula for experimenting with these new seaplanes, and for training pilots. They were actually the first navy to use aircraft for military purposes – in April 1913, a second air station was set up in Boka Kotorska (a.k.a. Bocche di Cattaro). From there, three seaplanes started to fly reconnaissance missions, observing, taking aerial photographs, and delivering messages.
Taxiing out to Glavica – a quick view of Vrboska as we go past!
At the outbreak of war in 1914, the naval air station in Pula became fully operational, and a new permanent station was established in Boka Kotorska. In February a new naval aviation service was announced, and by the end of that year, twenty-five naval pilots were ready for combat operations in the Adriatic, with 287 seaplanes and flying boats of various types.
GPS systems showing our flight path
The world’s first commercial seaplane service was from St Petersburg to Tampa in Florida, begun in 1914. The “airboats” could carry only one passenger at a time, seated on a small wooden bench next to the pilot, with no protective windshield and flying just 5 feet above the water. On their inaugural flight, they had to set down briefly in the middle of the bay, where the passenger (a former mayor of St Petersburg) assisted the pilot with some adjustments to the plane. The cost of a one-way flight was $5 for the 18 miles across the bay.
Meanwhile, back in the Adriatic, after the First World War, Rudolf Fizir was designing and building planes, converting some landplanes into seaplanes. His planes were very successful in Germany and France during the 1920s to 40s, and he had a vision of connecting the Adriatic islands with a seaplane service, which is actually not a bad idea!
There were actually several attempts at a commercial seaplane service in the Adriatic, mostly connecting visitors with island hotels and resorts. Civilian flights in Istria began back in 1924, when an Austrian industrialist sought to enhance the offerings for visitors to Brijuni by buying a seaplane called “POLA 1” for connections with Trieste, Ancona and Opatija.
Glorious views of the islands and the clear blue of the sea!
The golden age of travel by seaplane was in the 1930s, when commercial flying boats were the largest planes in the sky. Both the US and the UK ran long-distance flying boat services to Central and South America, across the Atlantic, to Africa. And Rijeka and Split had scheduled seaplane services to places as far away as Prague!
Split harbour – oh so close, but we can’t land there today
An echo of the romantic age of seaplane travel around the Adriatic shows in the animated film “Porco Rosso” by Japanese director Hayao Miyazaki. It’s an entertaining view of an ex-World War I seaplane pilot fighting pirates in and around the gorgeous scenery of the islands. Somewhat mysteriously the pilot has been turned into a talking pig, the reason for which escapes me! In the Disney version, Porco Rosso’s voice is provided by Michael Keaton.
Split downtown port – seaplane dock next to the ferries
Unfortunately seaplanes lost out to the more efficient jets after World War II. But they’re still very appropriate for remote areas. Loch Lomond Seaplanes in Scotland have been going since 2003, connecting Glasgow with the west coast and the Isle of Skye. I see also that in Greece, Hellenic Seaplanes are due to start operations in 2016.
Seaport dock at Resnik, Split airport
The Adri-Seaplane project aims to connect places around the Adriatic basin – such as Italy, Croatia, Montenegro, Albania and Greece. When transportation was mainly by boat, the connections across the sea were very strong, much more so than over the mountains to the interior countryside. These new seaplanes would revive some of the old maritime routes, giving fast and easy contact between seaports once more.
European Coastal Airlines is part of the Adri-Seaplanes initiative, with ports now in Pula, Rijeka, Split and Ancona. For the islands, it’s a great way to bring in more visitors, build businesses, and hopefully retain more of the young folks. It certainly makes life more convenient when we want to go into Split for the day – such a pleasant and very scenic way to travel! On the return flight, we were treated to a beautiful view of Vrboska in the soft evening light as the sun was setting.