Cabo Verde Transportation - History

Cabo Verde Transportation - History

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number of registered air carriers: 2 (2015)

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 5 (2015)

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 567,182 (2015)

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,728,152 mt-km (2015)

9 (2013)

country comparison to the world: 156

total: 9 (2017)

over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2017)

914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2017)

under 914 m: 2 (2017)

total: 1,350 km (2013)

paved: 932 km (2013)

unpaved: 418 km (2013)

country comparison to the world: 172

total: 44

by type: general cargo 16, oil tanker 3, other 25 (2019)

country comparison to the world: 119

major seaport(s): Porto Grande

MCC commissioned International Development Group, LLC to conduct an independent ex-post performance evaluation of the Roads and Bridges Activity. Full report results and learning:

Condition of Road and Bridge Investments

  • Several sections of cobblestone roads were upgraded to asphalt and remained in very good condition with little traffic-related distress.
  • Bridge conditions were good, but drains and minor potholes need attention.

Road Maintenance

  • The road sector was reformed during the compact through the Road Agency and the Road Maintenance Fund. Around 80% of the fund’s revenues are spent annually on maintenance.
  • The three compact-funded roads have received adequate routine maintenance and will not need periodic maintenance for about seven years. Limited resources for periodic maintenance suggest that external resources will be needed at that point.

Road Usage

  • Traffic growth was modest. Across all roads, pickup trucks were the most common type of vehicle observed (more than 50%).
  • Most trips were work related and included transporting passengers, transporting goods, transporting goods and passengers, commuting, and selling products at markets. The top 10 origins/destinations were Praia, Assomada, and Tarrafal even though these locations are not on the roads themselves.


Cabo Verde Airlines is a scheduled airline whose new hub operates at the international airport on the island of Sal. Since November 2009 it has been an active member of the International Air Transport Association (IATA). The company currently has a management agreement with the company Loftleidir Icelandic.

Cabo Verde Airlines is the air flag carrier of the Republic of Cabo Verde, owned in 49% by the State of Cabo Verde and 51% by Loftleidir Cabo Verde.

It was established in 1958, as a public enterprise when it absorbed the then called Aero Club of Cabo Verde. Up to 1984, the company operations were restricted to the domestic market for eight (8) of the nine (9) inhabited islands of the archipelago. In the eighties, new horizons were open to the company.

The large emigration of Cape Verdeans to Europe that had begun in the sixties followed by the advent of the independence of Cabo Verde in 1975 brought on favorable market conditions for the start-up of the TACV international operations with the opening of the line Sal – Lisbon – Sal in 1985. From this date on, TACV gradually conquered new markets.

It currently has a wide and consolidated network that involves Domestic and Intercontinental operations. The two main important factors that have influenced the success of these fifty years of the life of the company are: the existence of an important Diaspora spread over the five continents, whose number is larger than the resident population of the country and the “discovery” of Cabo Verde in the 90’s as a tourist destination, by the Europeans. As an international operator, Cabo Verde Airlines has been implementing regularly the ever more demanding requirements in the area of aeronautical security, imposed not only by the European Union but also by the United States of America.

In February of 2009, the company acquired its registry in the IOSA program of IATA. In May 2018, TACV changed its name to Cabo Verde Airlines. It is today the sixth African airline company certified as IOSA Operator, in IATA Operational Safety Audit Program.

1. Death and Legacy

Aristides Pereira, at the age of 87, went to Portugal in August of 2011 to receive surgery for a fractured femur. He died soon afterwards, on September 22nd, 2011, at Colmbra University Hospital in Portugal. A state funeral in Cape Verde was held for him soon thereafter. As the first president of Cape Verde, Pereira's death was seen as "a great loss to the Cape Verdean nation". He is remembered by many as a hero in its anti-colonial struggle, an uncorrupted politician with integrity, and a great contributor to his country. He received many nominal honors and medals from various universities, governments, and organizations. In November 2011, several months after his death, the airport on his birthplace island of Boa Vista was named after him.

Hitchhiking in Cabo Verde

Hitchhiking is making private transportation public.

As you might know, hitchhiking works best with privately owned vehicles. While it’s not impossible to hitchhike a taxi or aluguer, you cannot assume your ride is for free . Even with privately-owned vehicles, the people might expect you to contribute a little for gas – even though this never happened to me in my time in Cabo Verde. If you want to make sure your ride is really a hitch, ask , clarify , and if it’s not for free, politely decline . Cabo Verdeans are generally very honest people who are conflict-averse. If you’re not hitchhiking and agreed on a price and destination beforehand, people will stick to this. If there’s any confusion, this might be because of a miscommunication issue. People are not intent on screwing you over .

When does hitchhiking make more sense?

The most important rule to keep in the back of your head is that waiting for an aluguer is basically the same as waiting for a hitch, depending on the time of day. In the early morning, it’s easier to catch a targeted aluguer. After the morning hours, the aluguer traffic becomes more irregular and it starts making sense to hitchhike. There is usually one aluguer vehicle that returns from smaller places to the bigger ones in the afternoon between 4 ‘o clock and sunset. After sunset there is almost no traffic unless there’s a ferry/flight still arriving .

Which vehicles are hitchable?

The more expensive-looking the vehicle, the bigger the chance it is free of charge. This applies to almost anywhere in the world.

I don’t have any hitchhiking experience, will I be OK?

Even if you have zero experience with hitchhiking, it might really pay off time-wise to finally make the leap and lift that thumb. As long as you keep to the ask, clarify, and humbly accept/politely decline rule, you should be fine. You should be more than fine! Riding with locals who are just on their commute is always a very memorable experience you’ll take home.

What do the first two letters mean on a license plate?

I’m so glad you noticed! The first two letters of a license plate indicate the island where the vehicle’s registration and/or import island. I figured this out myself, so I might be completely wrong on this. But yeah, it’s a pattern. The two-letter abbreviations are as followed:

  • ST = Santiago
  • SV = São Vicente
  • SN = São Nicolau
  • FG = Fogo
  • BR = Brava
  • SA = Santo Antão
  • SL = Sal

I haven’t been to Maio and Boa Vista, but I think they’d be MA = Maio and BV = Boa Vista. You can confirm/correct me by leaving a comment if you’ve been to these islands (I’d highly appreciate that).

So why do you see so many vehicles registered on other islands on your island? Because you can actually transport road vehicles onto (many, if not most) ferries. Inter-island shipping of vehicles isn’t so weird in Cabo Verde.

Drunk drivers

It only happened to me once (on Santo Antão island), but I got into the vehicle with a man who behaved strangely and reeked of alcohol. I sat in the passenger’s seat next to him, while my partner sat in the back.

The government of Cabo Verde runs anti drinking+driving campaigns, so they’re aware that this is a problem. In my opinion, the problem is not very huge or widespread,

Driving schools

In Cabo Verde, there are a lot of driving schools with many people taking lessons. They’re usually driving around town, usually around the only roundabout. To learn parallel parking, they use a designated area with poles to practice. This is because there aren’t

I’m mentioning driving schools because there’s only one other country in the world where I’ve seen so many driving school vehicles: Albania. It’s usually a phenomenon that pops up when governments start to prioritize road safety more and more rather than having lots of untrained, inexperienced drivers just hit the road like that, they encourage education. This form of regulation is a good thing!

Can I hitchhike the big TUI buses when they’re empty?

Cabo Verde

The last Mutual Evaluation Report relating to the implementation of anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing standards in Cabo Verde (Cape Verde) was undertaken in 2019. According to that Evaluation, Cabo Verde was deemed Compliant for 9 and Largely Compliant for 15 of the FATF 40 Recommendations. It was deemed Highly Effective for 0 and Substantially Effective for 0 of the Effectiveness & Technical Compliance ratings.

US Department of State Money Laundering assessment (INCSR)

Cabo Verde is categorised by the US State Department as a Country/Jurisdiction of Primary Concern in respect of Money Laundering and Financial Crimes.

Cabo Verde&rsquos mid-Atlantic location and its land-to-water ratio make it vulnerable to narcotics trafficking between West Africa, the Americas, and Europe. Its financial system is primarily composed of the banking sector.

Although Cabo Verde&rsquos AML regime has flaws, the government has revised its laws, policies, and regulations to create the tools to curb illicit financial activities. The AML framework, established in 2009, led to improved shipping container monitoring and information sharing. Cabo Verde receives international support to fight drug trafficking, money laundering, and other crimes.

There are no international sanctions currently in force against this country.

Transparency International Corruption Index 58

World Governance Indicator &ndash Control of Corruption 80

Cabo Verde&rsquos economy is vulnerable to external shocks and depends on development aid, foreign investment, remittances, and tourism. The economy is service-oriented with commerce, transport, tourism, and public services accounting for about three-fourths of GDP. Tourism is the mainstay of the economy and depends on conditions in the euro-zone countries. Cabo Verde annually runs a high trade deficit financed by foreign aid and remittances from its large pool of emigrants remittances as a share of GDP are one of the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Although about 40% of the population lives in rural areas, the share of food production in GDP is low. The island economy suffers from a poor natural resource base, including serious water shortages, exacerbated by cycles of long-term drought, and poor soil for growing food on several of the islands, requiring it to import most of what it consumes. The fishing potential, mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited.

Economic reforms are aimed at developing the private sector and attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy and mitigate high unemployment. The government&rsquos elevated debt levels have limited its capacity to finance any shortfalls.

bananas, corn, beans, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, coffee, peanuts fish

food and beverages, fish processing, shoes and garments, salt mining, ship repair

fuel (re-exports), shoes, garments, fish, hides

Australia 83%, Spain 8.6% (2015)

foodstuffs, industrial products, transport equipment, fuels

Portugal 29.9%, Australia 26.4%, Netherlands 11.2%, Spain 5.6%, China 5.6% (2015).

Investment Climate - US State Department

The Republic of Cabo Verde is an archipelago located in the North Atlantic Ocean 300 miles west of Senegal, off Africa's west coast. This small African nation has a population of approximately 500,000 people spread over nine inhabited islands with limited natural resources. The country's climate is extremely arid, and prolonged drought frequently affects its economy. Cabo Verde's geography, low proportion of arable land, scant rainfall, and lack of natural resources, territorial discontinuity and small population make it a high-cost economy lacking economies of scale. The economy is service-oriented, with tourism, transport, commerce, and public services accounting for more than 60 percent of GDP. Cabo Verde enjoys political stability and has a history of parliamentary democracy and economic freedom that is unusual in the region. 2016 elections were free and fair, and all governments in Cabo Verde have generally respected the human rights of its citizens. In 2008, four years after the United Nations recommendations, Cabo Verde graduated from a Least Developed Country to a Lower Middle Income Country. In May of the same year, five months after the World Trade Organization (WTO) approved the GOCV application Cabo Verde&rsquos National Assembly unanimously ratified the agreement and formally acceded to the WTO.

There are few regulatory barriers to foreign investment in Cabo Verde, and foreign investors receive national treatment regarding taxes, license approvals and registration, and access to foreign exchange. Foreign investment in Cabo Verde is concentrated in tourism and light manufacturing. In terms of transportation, Cabo Verde&rsquos strategic and geographic location places the country in a position to become a regional and international shipping hub for both passengers and cargo. Nevertheless, the country remains underserved, with insufficient and inefficient maritime transportation, especially for passengers. The energy sector in Cabo Verde is undergoing important regulatory changes and attracting investment which may result in a clearer framework to promote investment opportunities in the sector.

Starting in the mid-1990s, the GOCV implemented a series of reforms that have transformed a centrally-planned economy into a market-oriented economy. The number of publicly-owned enterprises has decreased from forty in the 1990s to six as of 2015.

About people, economy, government, military, food

20. The country is blessed with one of Africa’s most stable democratic governments.

21. Majority of Cape Verdeans have both African and Portuguese antecedents.

22. The nation’s expatriate population is greater than its domestic population because of the repeated droughts that the country experienced during the second half of the 20 th century leading to the heavy emigration of the local population. Cabo Verdeans have moved to other countries including US, Europe, Africa, and South America.

Cape Verde — Transportation

Traveling by taxi is a useful and inexpensive way to explore Cape Verde and most of the larger towns and resorts have cabs waiting. The majority of drivers speak basic English and the quality of the car is usually to a high standard. Although most are metered, it is worth agreeing on a price before setting off.

The cheapest way to get around Cape Verde is via aluguers, small minibuses that are easily identified and run along set routes through town. They are often full of passengers and packages, and usually operate daily until the early evening. All you need to do is simply shout when you want to get off.

Car rental is available, but only worthwhile on the larger islands of Santiago and Boa Vista. A host of local companies is available at the airport and towns include Alucar (+238-2615-801). Gas is relatively cheap and the main roads are well-marked. Small motorbikes and bicycles can also be rented for a fun way to see the sites.

Cape Verde Ferries

Daily ferry services run between all nine inhabited Cape Verde islands however, delays are fairly common and routes tend to be irregular during the low season so make sure to check the schedule ahead of time. A few different companies serve the islands, most notably Polar (+238-2615-223), which connects the towns of Praia, Fogo, Brava and Maio. Some of the trips like from Sao Nicolau to Praia are overnight and only offered twice a week.

Cape Verde Planes

Local carrier TACV flies to all inhabited Cape Verde islands aside from Brava. The prices for domestic sea planes tend to be inexpensive if tickets are purchased in Cape Verde however, you may want to invest in a Cabo Verde AirPass if you plan on island-hopping. These are only available outside the country and you have to arrive by TACV to be eligible. Savings are small so it may not be worth the sacrifice in flexibility.

Cabo Verde (Cape Verde)

The República de Cabo Verde (or Republic of Cape Verde ) consists of ten islands in the Atlantic Ocean, about 300 miles off the coast of West Africa. They were uninhabited until settlement began by Portugal in 1462. The Islands remained a Portuguese colony until their status was changed to that of an Overseas Province of Portugal in 1951. Independence was achieved in 1975 .

From the Inquisition until the late 19th century, this predominantly Catholic area received Jews fleeing from religious persecution or searching for greater economic opportunity. Courtesy of This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. and his website. [June 2000] This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Jews of Cape Verde website. [August 2009]

Cemetery restoration project update. Jewish cemetaries or graves are in Brava (at Cova da Judeu), Boa Vista, Sao Tiago (in Praia and Cidade Velha), Santo Antao (especially at Sinagoga), Sao Nicolau (at Mindelo), Fogo, and probably in other islands as well.


The Cape Verde Jewish Heritage Project, Inc. (CVJHP) is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) organization that aims to honor the memory and explore the contributions of the many Sephardic Jewish families who immigrated to Cape Verde from Morocco and Gibraltar in the mid-19th century.

The primary goals of CVJHP are to preserve Cape Verde's Jewish heritage by restoring and maintaining Jewish burial grounds, to educate future generations about the Jews of Cape Verde by documenting their legacy, and to encourage Jewish heritage tourism.

CVJHP has the support of the Government of the Republic of Cape Verde and is working in close partnership with the Cape Verde-Israel Friendship Society (AMICAEL) to achieve these goals. AMICAEL is a non-profit organization based in Cape Verde whose members consist of descendants of the Jewish families. Carol Castiel is president of CVJHP.

• Restoration, preservation and maintenance of Jewish burial grounds, which have fallen into disrepair in the islands of Santo Antao, Boa Vista and Sao Tiago. Erection of honorary plaques.

• Continued oral and archival research on the Jewish families and their descendants.

• Publication of book about the Jews and their descendants based on above research.

• Symposium on the Jewish presence in Lusophone Africa.

• Promotion of Jewish heritage tourism to Cape Verde.

• Documentary film about the Jews of Cape Verde. (once above objectives are attained)


• Letter endorsing Project from Cape Verdean Prime Minister. 2007

• Cape Verde Jewish Heritage Project, Inc. receives tax-exempt status from IRS. 2007

• Presentation on the Jews of Cape Verde by Carol Castiel, Jewish Genealogy Conference. 2003

• Two "Insider Embassy Nights" at the Cape Verde Embassy in Washington for the DC Jewish Community Center when The Project was highlighted. 1997, 2003

• Interviews with more than a dozen descendants of Jews of Cape Verde in Lisbon. 2002. (Documentation of memory continues and will culminate in a book by Carol Castiel based on archives and oral histories of descendants.)

• Radio spot for the "Voice of America" on the Jews of Cape Verde. 2002

• Initial restoration of Penha da Franca Cemetery, Santo Antao. 1999

• Presentation of The Project's objectives by Carol Castiel at World Bank Symposium, "Historic Cities and Sacred Sites." 1999

• Meeting between Carlos Alberto Wahnon de Carvalho Veiga, then Prime Minister of Cape Verde, and Vice President of B'nai B'rith International, Daniel Mariaschin. 1998

• Formation of grass-roots group of Jewish Cape Verdeans in Lisbon, Portugal. 1997

• Visits of Carol Castiel to H.E. Andre Azoulay, Advisor to the King of Morocco, and the Jewish Community of Casablanca to establish Moroccan linkages for Project. 1996

• "Recovering Jewish Heritage in the Cape Verde Islands," Carol Castiel, Historic Cities and Sacred Places, proceedings of World Bank Symposium. 2000

• The Presence of Jews in Cape Verde: Inventory of Historical Documents from 1840-1927, Claudia Correia, Cape Verdean historian. Doctoral dissertation. 1998

• The Jews of Cape Verde: A Brief History, M. Mitchell Serels, Sepher-Hermon Press, Inc. 1997

• Book review of The Jews of Cape Verde: A Brief History, Israel Benoliel, Cimboa, Cultural Magazine of Cape Verde, Boston. 1997

• "Cape Verde Hosts Jews," Carol Castiel, Washington Jewish Week, 1995

• Portuguese and French translations of the above article appeared respectively in the newspapers Novo Jornal of Cape Verde and Le Maroc Hebdo of Morocco. 1995

The Republic of Cape Verde, an archipelago of ten islands, lies in the Atlantic Ocean about 300 miles off the coast of Senegal, West Africa. As a result of over 500 years of Portuguese colonial rule, Cape Verdeans are predominantly Catholic. However, beginning with the period of the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisition through the late 19th century, Cape Verde received Jews fleeing religious persecution, or as in the case of the 19th century, seeking greater economic stability.

The Cape Verde Jewish Heritage Project, Inc. is mainly concerned with the second wave of Jewish immigration. Deteriorating economic conditions in Morocco in the mid-1800's prompted some Jews to immigrate to Cape Verde, which was then a Portuguese colony. The Hebrew and Portuguese inscriptions on the tombstones in the small Jewish cemeteries throughout the islands, indicate that the majority came from the Moroccan cities of Tangier, Tetouan, Rabat, and Mogador (now Essaouira) bearing distinctive Sephardic names such as Benoliel, Benrós, Benathar, Benchimol, Brigham, Auday, Anahory, Cohen, Levy, Maman, Pinto, Seruya and Wahnon. Many arrived in Cape Verde via Gibraltar.

These families landed primarily on the islands of Santo Antao, Sao Vicente, Boa Vista and Sao Tiago and engaged in international commerce, shipping, administration and other trades. The Jews lived, worked, and prospered in Cape Verde. However, because their numbers were few relative to the larger Catholic population, widespread intermarriage occurred. As a result of this assimilation, Cape Verde today has virtually no practicing Jews. Yet, descendants of these families, whether in Cape Verde, the United States, Portugal or Canada, speak with pride of their Jewish ancestry. They wish to honor the memory of their forebears by preserving the cemeteries and by documenting their legacy. The first democratically elected prime minister of Cape Verde, Carlos Alberto Wahnon de Carvalho Veiga, is of Jewish descent. Many descendan Rediscovering and Restoring Cape Verde’s Jewish Heritage. [November 2018]ts of the Jewish families are actively engaged in collaborating on various aspects of CVJHP's mission, such as providing oral testimonies, technical support and financial assistance.

For more information or to make a tax-deductible contribution, please contact: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , President, Cape Verde Jewish Heritage Project Inc. 400 Massachusetts Ave, NW, Suite 812, Washington, DC 20001. Tel: 202.841.9925. [September 2009]


  1. Vincent

    This valuable communication is remarkable

  2. Cain

    Whether there are analogues?

  3. Welborn

    What good words

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