The Middle Phase

The Middle Phase

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Formal war was declared between Britain and France in 1756, and a small colonial conflict was transformed into a world war. Effecting a reversal of past alliances, Austria sided with France and Britain with Prussia.In North America the string of British failures continued with the loss of Fort Oswego to the French in 1756. Louis Joseph, the Marquis de Montcalm, arrived as the new French commander and successfully pushed southward along Lake Champlain and Lake George. Fort William Henry fell in 1757, a French victory that left Albany exposed.

Things were equally dire in Europe and Asia. In 1757, it appeared to many that France and Austria were on the verge of a great victory that would significantly reduce British power throughout the world. Nonetheless, the underlying strength of the British indicated a different outcome. By 1757, the French fielded a North American army of slightly more than 10,000 men, about equally divided between regulars and Canadian militia; the Indian allies were undependable by this point. The British, on the other hand, had 20,000 regulars and an equal number of militiamen. The overall population of British North America was about 10 times that of New France, and the French were impaired by longer and more exposed lines of supply.A great turning point occurred in 1758 after William Pitt had taken full control of the British war effort.

See French and Indian War Timeline.
See also Indian Wars Time Table.

The middle phases: Koine and Byzantine Greek

The fairly uniform spoken Greek that gradually replaced the local dialects after the breakdown of old political barriers and the establishment of Alexander’s empire in the 4th century bce is known as the Koine (hē koinē dialektos ‘the common language’), or “Hellenistic Greek.” Attic, by virtue of the undiminished cultural and commercial predominance of Athens, provided its basis, but, as the medium of communication throughout the new urban centres of Egypt, Syria, and Asia Minor, it absorbed numerous non-Attic elements and underwent some degree of grammatical simplification. Numerous inscriptions enable scholars to trace its triumphant progress at the expense of the old dialects, at least as the language of business and administration, although some rural dialects are reported to have survived as late as the 2nd century ce . Other sources of information for the Koine are the translation of the Septuagint made in the 3rd century bce for the use of the Hellenized Jewish community of Alexandria, the New Testament, and the writings of a few people (e.g., the historian Polybius and the philosopher Epictetus) who preferred it to Attic. As the everyday colloquial language of urban Egypt, it may be studied in papyri going back to the 4th century bce . The Koine may be dated very crudely from the period of Alexander’s conquests in the 4th century bce to approximately the reign of Justinian in the 6th century ce .

The Koine replaced the Attic tt with the ss characteristic of Ionic and other dialects (e.g., glōssa for glōtta ‘tongue’) at an early date, but its main phonological characteristic is the gradual simplification of the rich vowel system of Classical Greek. Ancient closed and open long /ē/ (ει and η) and /i/ (ι) merged as /i/, and /ai/ (αι) monophthongized to /e/ /oi/ (οι) monophthongized to /ü/, thus merging with simple /ü/ (υ) (pronounced as French tu). The second element of /au/ (αυ) and /eu/ (ευ) was changed to /v/ or /f/ depending on the voicing of the following consonant (compare Ancient auge ‘light, dawn,’ autos ‘he’ to Modern avghí, aftós). Classical /ph th kh/ (pronounced as in English pin, tin, kin) acquired fricative articulations as in fin, thin, and the final element of Scottish loch (or German Buch) /b d g/ became the voiced fricatives /v dh/ (as in that), /gh/ (as in Spanish fuego).

Other parts of the grammar also began to move in the direction of Modern Greek in this period. Nouns in consonant stems began to acquire the endings of the -a declension e.g., thygatēr, ‘daughter,’ accusative thygatera, was remodeled after items such as khōra, khōran ‘country.’ The dual number was lost in nouns, verbs, and adjectives, as was the optative mood (expressing wish or desire) of verbs. Confusion arose between the perfect and aorist tense forms, leading to the loss of one or the other (the former in most verbs).

In vocabulary there were numerous borrowings from non-Attic dialects, and some Attic words acquired new meanings thus, opsaria ‘fish’ and brechei ‘it rains’ for Classical Greek ichthyes and hyei both occur in the New Testament (compare Modern Greek psárya, vrékhi).

This gradual divergence from the language of Plato and Demosthenes was viewed as a species of linguistic decadence by an influential school known as the Atticists, who unceasingly castigated the use of Koine forms by writers. It was thus that the rift developed between the everyday spoken language and an archaizing, specifically written language. It became fashionable to publish manuals of “good usage” in which the Attic equivalents of Koine innovations were recommended as models for the student’s imitation.

6b. "The Middle Passage"

Two by two the men and women were forced beneath deck into the bowels of the slave ship.

The "packing" was done as efficiently as possible. The captives lay down on unfinished planking with virtually no room to move or breathe. Elbows and wrists will be scraped to the bone by the motion of the rough seas.

Some will die of disease, some of starvation, and some simply of despair. This was the fate of millions of West Africans across three and a half centuries of the slave trade on the voyage known as the "middle passage."

Two philosophies dominated the loading of a slave ship. " Loose packing " provided for fewer slaves per ship in the hopes that a greater percentage of the cargo would arrive alive. " Tight packing " captains believed that more slaves, despite higher casualties, would yield a greater profit at the trading block.

Doctors would inspect the slaves before purchase from the African trader to determine which individuals would most likely survive the voyage. In return, the traders would receive guns, gunpowder, rum or other sprits, textiles or trinkets.

The " middle passage ," which brought the slaves from West Africa to the West Indies, might take three weeks. Unfavorable weather conditions could make the trip much longer.

The Transatlantic (Triangular) Trade involved many continents, a lot of money, some cargo and sugar, and millions of African slaves.

Slaves were fed twice daily and some captains made vain attempts to clean the hold at this time. Air holes were cut into the deck to allow the slaves breathing air, but these were closed in stormy conditions. The bodies of the dead were simply thrust overboard. And yes, there were uprisings.

Upon reaching the West Indies, the slaves were fed and cleaned in the hopes of bringing a high price on the block. Those that could not be sold were left for dead. The slaves were then transported to their final destination. It was in this unspeakable manner that between ten and twenty million Africans were introduced to the New World.

Middle Phase Of The Freedom Struggle (1915 – 1930) Study Materials

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History of Globalization

Globalization is not a new phenomenon. Today’s globalization has developed through the different phases which are started from ancient time.

Human being always moved from one place to other place with the purpose of trade. They exchanged goods, skill and ideas with other people from the history.

Silk Road

I have already mentioned that China used the Silk Road for their trade to Europe through Central Asia. Around 1 st Century BC, Silk Road was first introduced to the Roman Empire.

Throughout history Eurasia is one of the important paths for communication and trade which links from china. This route or path is called today as Silk Road. Through this road, people share their knowledge, ideas, culture, and beliefs.

Trader along with this road not only attached to trade but also intellectual and cultural exchange. Silk was a more expensive and luxurious product that was traded between east and west through this road. Besides silk, there were many products that were traded such as textiles, spices, grain, vegetables, and fruits, etc.

Spice Trade

Trade of spice was happened from the 7 th to 15 th centuries by the Islamic merchants in the Middle East. Islamic merchants traded spice from the Middle East to East Asia. The main purpose of that trade was to spread the Islamic religion. As a result of this initiative you can see a country like Indonesia where the most population is a Muslim majority.

The dominating product of Islamic trade was spice. Spice was traded mainly through sea and they were very much focusing on international trade in medieval age.

Age of Exploration

From the 15 th to the 18 th Century was the era of exploration. During this time the exploration of the Europeans connected the East and the West. Columbus’s discovery of America is believed to have begun the journey of modern globalization.

At this time, three things were mainly focused on. These are called as 3C

1. Christianity

Christianity represents western civilization. Based on this notion, Western society sought to spread their religion throughout the world and had many successes.

2. Civilization

Christianity was one of the means of reaching Western civilization all over the world. As we look at the countries of Africa and Asia, we can see that there are many areas where Christianity is particularly prevalent. Although their Ethnic Identity is different.

If you want to know about Ethnicity then this article is a must read.

Western civilization is perfect and the rest of religion or culture is barbaric. In order to establish this idea, they imposed their culture on these backward countries.

3. Commerce

Now the question is why did they impose their religion or culture on others?

The answer is trade. If you consider Western civilization to be superior, their practical products will attract you. Almost every civilized society is now accustomed to wearing western clothing and others. Their real purpose was to ensure that western trade was forever.

The Middle Phase - History

For weeks, months, sometimes as long as a year, they waited in the dungeons of the slave factories scattered along Africa's western coast. They had already made the long, difficult journey from Africa's interior -- but just barely. Out of the roughly 20 million who were taken from their homes and sold into slavery, half didn't complete the journey to the African coast, most of those dying along the way.

And the worst was yet to come.

The captives were about to embark on the infamous Middle Passage, so called because it was the middle leg of a three-part voyage -- a voyage that began and ended in Europe. The first leg of the voyage carried a cargo that often included iron, cloth, brandy, firearms, and gunpowder. Upon landing on Africa's "slave coast," the cargo was exchanged for Africans. Fully loaded with its human cargo, the ship set sail for the Americas, where the slaves were exchanged for sugar, tobacco, or some other product. The final leg brought the ship back to Europe.

The African slave boarding the ship had no idea what lay ahead. Africans who had made the Middle Passage to the plantations of the New World did not return to their homeland to tell what happened to those people who suddenly disappeared. Sometimes the captured Africans were told by the white men on the ships that they were to work in the fields. But this was difficult to believe, since, from the African's experience, tending crops took so little time and didn't require many hands. So what were they to believe? More than a few thought that the Europeans were cannibals. Olaudah Equiano, an African captured as a boy who later wrote an autobiography, recalled . . .

When I looked round the ship too and saw a large furnace of copper boiling, and a mulititude of black people of every description chained together, every one of their countenances expressing dejection and sorrow, I no longer doubted of my fate and quite overpowered with horrow and anguish, I fell motionless on the deck and fainted. . . . I asked if we were not to be eaten by those white men with horrible looks, red faces and long hair?"

The slaves were branded with hot irons and restrained with shackles. Their "living quarters" was often a deck within the ship that had less than five feet of headroom -- and throughout a large portion of the deck, sleeping shelves cut this limited amount of headroom in half.4 Lack of standing headroom was the least of the slaves' problems, though. With 300 to 400 people packed in a tiny area5 -- an area with little ventilation and, in some cases, not even enough space to place buckets for human waste -- disease was prevalent. According to Equiano, "The closeness of the place, and the heat of the climate, added to the number in the ship, which was so crowded that each had scarcely room to turn himself, almost suffocated us. This produced copious perspirations, so that the air soon became unfit for respiration, from a variety of loathsome smells, and brought on a sickness among the slaves, of which many died."

Faced with the nightmarish conditions of the voyage and the unknown future that lay beyond, many Africans preferred to die. But even the choice of suicide was taken away from these persons. From the captain's point of view, his human cargo was extremely valuable and had to be kept alive and, if possible, uninjured. A slave who tried to starve him or herself was tortured. If torture didn't work, the slave was force fed with the help of a contraption called a speculum orum , which held the mouth open.

Despite the captain's desire to keep as many slaves as possible alive, Middle Passage mortality rates were high. Although it's difficult to determine how many Africans died en route to the new world, it is now believed that between ten and twenty percent of those transported lost their lives.

The Middle Passage

"The stench of the hold…was so intolerably loathsome that it was dangerous to remain there for any time…but now that the whole ship’s cargo were confined together, it became absolutely pestilential. The closeness of the place and the heat of the climate, added to the number in the ship which was so crowded that each had scarcely room to turn himself, almost suffocated us"

Olaudah Equiano


The Middle Passage did not begin with the transatlantic voyage, but with the capture and sale of Africans, and ended with their forced ‘adjustment’ to life in the Americas. It is one of history’s most horrific chapters, showing the human capacity for both cruelty and insensitivity and strength and survival. It is difficult to calculate the numbers of Africans that were transported estimates have ranged from five million to 30 million. Further millions died during capture and on the journey across the Atlantic. History has seen few social disruptions on such a scale.

The voyage itself took between 6 and 8 weeks. The enslaved Africans were chained together by the hand and the foot, and packed into the smallest places where there was barely enough room to lie on one’s side. It was here that they ate, slept, urinated, defecated, gave birth, went insane and died. They had no idea where they were going, or what was going to happen to them. Through all this misery and suffering, new African identities were created, forming a basis for a new transnational culture. Within these ships, Africans from different countries, regions, cultures and with different languages learned to communicate with each other many conspired to overthrow their captors together.

British eyewitness accounts were used to support the anti-slavery campaign. Alexander Falconbridge, a former slave ship’s surgeon wrote his Account of Slave Trade on the Coast of Africa in 1788 which described the loss of life, the state of the holds below deck, and how some severely depressed Africans willed themselves to die:
"A woman was dejected from the moment she came on board, and refused both food and medicine being asked by the interpreter what she wanted, she replied ‘nothing but to die’, and she did die".

Others chose to express their resistance more violently – "a man sold with his family for witchcraft", testified Dr Trotter at the parliamentary select committee, "refused all sustenance after he came on board. Early the next morning it was found that he had attempted to cut his own throat. [Dr Trotter] sewed up the wound, but the following night the man had not only torn out the sutures, but had made a similar attempt on the other side. He declared that he would never go with white men…he died of hunger in eight or ten days".

Narratives from the Collection

An abstract of the evidence delivered before a select committee of the House of Commons in the years 1790 and 1791, on the part of the petitioners for the abolition of the slave trade
". the enslaved Africans show signs of extreme distress and despair. "

The Life Cycles of Empires

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The German philosopher Hegel (1770-1831) knew that just because men and women learned about the past, that didn't mean they'd make better decisions about the future. He once cynically commented, "What experience and history teach us is this—that people and governments never have learned anything from history, or acted on principles deduced from it."

For years after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, America seemingly towered over the world as a great giant—economically, culturally and militarily. But now for nearly a decade since the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, its armed services have clashed with the forces of Islamic extremism and terrorism in Afghanistan, Iraq and elsewhere in the world.

If that weren't bad enough, the worldwide economic crisis has laid the country low with high unemployment, an immense federal government deficit, rising inflation and depressed home values. Other challenges loom ahead, flowing from the European Union's growing political and economic integration, Russia's increased strength and assertiveness, and China's rapid economic, industrial and military growth.

Will America follow the path of past empires?

Clearly America's present lone-superpower status is being increasingly challenged. Could it be lost completely? While it clings to a general preeminence right now, could America still decline and fall?

Didn't that happen to other great empires in the past, such as those of Britain, Spain, Rome, Persia, Babylon and Egypt? Is America' s future more secure than theirs was?

Sir John Bagot Glubb (1897-1987), a highly honored British general and historian better known as Glubb Pasha, wrote about the collapsed empires of the past. In his 1978 book The Fate of Empires and the Search for Survival, he described a common pattern fitting the history of some fallen empires. They went through a cycle of stages as they started, expanded, matured, declined and collapsed.

Does the pattern apply to America today? Has the United States entered this cycle's ending stages? If so, shouldn't Americans critically examine the current state of their culture to see what could be done to prevent the same grim fate?

By knowing history better, we can better project our likely national futures. As the great British Prime Minister and noted historian Winston Churchill observed, "The farther backward you can look, the farther forward you are likely to see."

Seven steps in the life cycles of great powers

Glubb Pasha learned that different empires had similar cultural changes while experiencing a life cycle in a series of stages that could overlap. He generalized about empires having seven stages of development, identifying these successive ages as follows:

1. The age of outburst (or pioneers).
2. The age of conquests.
3. The age of commerce.
4. The age of affluence.
5. The age of intellect.
6. The age of decadence.
7. The age of decline and collapse.

Each stage helps progression to the next as the values of the people change over time. Military, political, economic and religious developments all influence an empire's people to act and believe differently over time.

Let's look at these stages in more detail.

The rise of empires

In the first two stages or ages, the warrior's adventuresome and manly values drive an empire to gain power as it conquers land from others.

Later on, during the following ages of commerce and affluence, businessmen and merchants—who normally value material success and dislike taking unnecessary risks—take over at the highest levels of society. Their societies downplay the values of the soldier.

According to Glubb, they normally do this not "from motives of conscience, but rather because of the weakening of a sense of duty in citizens, and the increase in selfishness, manifested in the desire for wealth and ease."

During these middle stages, empires stop taking more land and start building walls instead. They switch from the offensive to the defensive. Historical examples include the wall built near the Scottish border by the Roman emperor Hadrian, the Great Wall of China constructed to keep out intrusion by certain nomadic groups, and even 20th-century France's Maginot Line, placed along the German border.

Conquest and (later) business investment promoted by the empire's unity builds the wealth that leads to the age of intellect. Even the brutal Mongol Empire, by bringing most of Asia under its rule, encouraged the caravan trade along Eurasia's famed Silk Road. During this fifth stage, the empire's leaders spent lots of money to establish educational institutions resembling modern universities and high schools.

Sowing the seeds of decline

During the age of intellect, schools may produce skeptical intellectuals who oppose the values and religious beliefs of their empires' early leaders. For example, the medieval Muslim philosophers Avicenna and Averroes, by accepting much of ancient Greek philosophy, weren't orthodox in belief.

Scholars also might manage schools that teach the ruling class and/or some of the average people subjects that are either mainly oriented towards financial success or are simply impractical. For example, in the early Roman Republic, students received a basic education that stressed character development and virtue. But in the later Roman Empire, teachers taught rhetoric (the art of speaking) when emotionally persuading assemblies was no longer of political or practical value.

The corrosive effects of material success encourage the upper class and the common people to discard the self-confident, self-disciplined values that helped to create the empire. Then the empire eventually collapses. Perhaps an outside power, such as the so-called barbarians in Rome's case, wipes it out. Or maybe an energetic internal force, such as the pro-capitalist reformers in the Soviet Union, finishes the job instead.

The growth of wealth and comfort clearly can undermine the values of character, such as self-sacrifice and discipline, that led to a given empire's creation. Then the empire so affected by moral decline grows weaker and more vulnerable to destruction by forces arising inside or outside of it.

Not surprisingly, God in the Bible specifically warned the ancient Israelites against departing from worshipping Him once they became materially satisfied after entering the Promised Land (Deuteronomy 8:11-20 Deuteronomy 8:11-20 [11] Beware that you forget not the LORD your God, in not keeping his commandments, and his judgments, and his statutes, which I command you this day: [12] Lest when you have eaten and are full, and have built goodly houses, and dwelled therein [13] And when your herds and your flocks multiply, and your silver and your gold is multiplied, and all that you have is multiplied [14] Then your heart be lifted up, and you forget the LORD your God, which brought you forth out of the land of Egypt, from the house of bondage [15] Who led you through that great and terrible wilderness, wherein were fiery serpents, and scorpions, and drought, where there was no water who brought you forth water out of the rock of flint [16] Who fed you in the wilderness with manna, which your fathers knew not, that he might humble you, and that he might prove you, to do you good at your latter end [17] And you say in your heart, My power and the might of my hand has gotten me this wealth. [18] But you shall remember the LORD your God: for it is he that gives you power to get wealth, that he may establish his covenant which he swore to your fathers, as it is this day. [19] And it shall be, if you do at all forget the LORD your God, and walk after other gods, and serve them, and worship them, I testify against you this day that you shall surely perish. [20] As the nations which the LORD destroys before your face, so shall you perish because you would not be obedient to the voice of the LORD your God.
American King James Version× 31:20). He understood this human tendency.

A society is known by its heroes

Has the United States entered the latter phases of the empire life cycle? True, it's only been independent from Britain for somewhat over two centuries. It's a young country compared to those of Europe or Asia. But does America today have the same values or cultural developments that past empires such as Rome had before they fell?

For example, who are the nation's heroes? What does a people's choice of heroes tell us about the people themselves? Today in America the people generally admired above all (and perpetually gossiped about) are celebrities such as sports stars, singers, actors and musicians.

As Glubb explains, the heroes of an empire's people change over time as their values do. Soldiers, builders, pioneers and explorers are admired in the initial stages of the empire life cycle. Then successful businessmen and entrepreneurs are esteemed during the ages of commerce and affluence.

For example, late 19th-century middle-class Americans wanted their children to learn the values of prudence, saving and foresight as found in the stories of author Horatio Alger, whose heroes lead exemplary lives striving to succeed in the face of adversity and poverty. Intellectuals are also increasingly respected during the age of intellect.

During the last stages of decadence and decline, an empire's people often think most highly of and imitate athletes, musicians and actors—despite how corrupt these celebrities' private lives are.

Remarkably, according to Glubb Pasha, in 10th-century Baghdad during the Muslim Abbasid Empire's decline, its writers complained about the singers of love songs having a bad influence on the young people! It seems the old adage is true: The more things change, the more they stay the same (or, perhaps, become the same again).

Because people grow emotionally attached to the music they love, they have a high regard for its singers and want to emulate them. Inevitably, popular music's often spiritually rotten lyrical content—such as foul language, blunt sexual references, glorifying immorality, and even Satanic allusions at times—influences fans. Furthermore, the immoral lifestyles of many musicians, often including drug abuse and promiscuous sex, also have an impact on society.

What are some key signs of decline?

What are some common features of an empire's culture in its declining period? Glubb describes developments like these:

1. Rampant sexual immorality, an aversion to marriage in favor of "living together" and an increased divorce rate all combine to undermine family stability. This happened among the upper class in the late Roman Republic and early Empire. The first-century writer Seneca once complained about Roman upper-class women: "They divorce in order to re-marry. They marry in order to divorce."

The birthrate declines, and abortion and infanticide both increase as family size is deliberately limited. The historian W.H. McNeill has referred to the "biological suicide of the Roman upper classes" as one reason for Rome's decline. Homosexuality becomes publicly acceptable and spreads, as was the case among the ancient Greeks before Rome conquered them.

2. Many foreign immigrants settle in the empire's capital and major cities. The mixture of ethnic groups in close proximity in these cosmopolitan places inevitably produces conflicts.

Because of their prominent locations within the empire, their influence greatly exceeds their percentage of the population. Here diversity plainly leads to divisiveness.

We see this today in the growing conflict in European countries such as France and the Netherlands, where large numbers of immigrants are stoking violent cultural clashes. German chancellor Angela Merkel recently made headlines when she stated that attempts to create a multicultural society had "utterly failed" and immigrants must do more to integrate into society.

3. Both irresponsible pleasure-seeking and pessimism increase among the people and their leaders. The spirit described in 1 Corinthians 15:32 1 Corinthians 15:32 If after the manner of men I have fought with beasts at Ephesus, what advantages it me, if the dead rise not? let us eat and drink for to morrow we die.
American King James Version× spreads throughout society: "Let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die!"

As people cynically give up looking for solutions to the problems of life and society, they drop out of the system. They then turn to mindless entertainment, to luxuries and sexual activity, and to drugs or alcohol.

The astonishingly corrupt and lavish parties of the Roman Empire's elite are a case in point. The Emperor Nero, for instance, would spend the modern equivalent of $500,000 for just the flowers at some banquets.

4. The government provides extensive welfare for the poor. In the case of the city of Rome, which had perhaps 1.2 million people around A.D. 170, government-provided "bread and circuses" (food and entertainment) helped to keep the masses content. About one half of its non-slave population was on the dole at least part of the year.

True, helping the poor shows Christian compassion (Mark 14:7 Mark 14:7 For you have the poor with you always, and whenever you will you may do them good: but me you have not always.
American King James Version× ). But such help also can lead to laziness and dependency (2 Thessalonians 3:10-12 2 Thessalonians 3:10-12 [10] For even when we were with you, this we commanded you, that if any would not work, neither should he eat. [11] For we hear that there are some which walk among you disorderly, working not at all, but are busybodies. [12] Now them that are such we command and exhort by our Lord Jesus Christ, that with quietness they work, and eat their own bread.
American King James Version× ). Such problems are especially likely when the poor believe state-provided charity is a permanent right or entitlement.

Is America on a downward cultural and spiritual spiral?

Considering this list of indicators of an empire's cultural and moral decline, is it reasonable to deny that the United States has entered the stages of decadence and decline?

True, the tidal wave of social and cultural decay unleashed by the 1960s in America has ebbed some in recent years. The rates of abortion, divorce, illegitimate births, drug abuse, welfare dependency and violent crime have either declined or gone up much more slowly.

Furthermore, some indicators of decline have good, not just bad, results. For instance, some immigration is helpful. As skilled, educated immigrants arrive, they normally benefit America economically while being a "brain drain" from Third World countries. And, indeed, the United States has historically embraced vast numbers of immigrants.

Nevertheless, the present flood of immigrants, legal or illegal, equals in impact the wave that arrived at America's shores around 1900. Today, they are far more apt to be a divisive force. Why? Unlike a hundred years ago, America's intellectual elite overall has adopted multiculturalism (the promotion of immigrants maintaining their prior distinct cultures) and has rejected assimilation (adopting the existing national culture) as its ideal.

Today multiculturalism is the ideology underlying a potentially ultimate political Balkanization, wherein society is fragmented along ethnic and cultural lines. (For evidence, see the liberal historian Arthur Schlesinger's 1991 book The Disuniting of America). A lack of cultural unity inevitably leads to conflict in a free society such as in the United States.

Are we paying attention?

How should we react to the historical insights of Sir John Glubb Pasha's The Fate of Empires and the Search for Survival as they relate to America, Britain and other related English-speaking nations?

As he notes in his examination of a number of previous empires, the processes of history often repeat themselves. We shouldn't believe that America will automatically avoid the fate of other great empires that declined and fell in the past.

God is ever so merciful, but His patience in the face of our national sins is wearing thin. He has given His true servants a mission to warn the nations of what is coming (Ezekiel 33:1-9 Ezekiel 33:1-9 [1] Again the word of the LORD came to me, saying, [2] Son of man, speak to the children of your people, and say to them, When I bring the sword on a land, if the people of the land take a man of their coasts, and set him for their watchman: [3] If when he sees the sword come on the land, he blow the trumpet, and warn the people [4] Then whoever hears the sound of the trumpet, and takes not warning if the sword come, and take him away, his blood shall be on his own head. [5] He heard the sound of the trumpet, and took not warning his blood shall be on him. But he that takes warning shall deliver his soul. [6] But if the watchman see the sword come, and blow not the trumpet, and the people be not warned if the sword come, and take any person from among them, he is taken away in his iniquity but his blood will I require at the watchman's hand. [7] So you, O son of man, I have set you a watchman to the house of Israel therefore you shall hear the word at my mouth, and warn them from me. [8] When I say to the wicked, O wicked man, you shall surely die if you do not speak to warn the wicked from his way, that wicked man shall die in his iniquity but his blood will I require at your hand. [9] Nevertheless, if you warn the wicked of his way to turn from it if he do not turn from his way, he shall die in his iniquity but you have delivered your soul.
American King James Version× ), and that is one of the purposes of this magazine. We want to help you see how prophecies given long ago are now shaping up before our eyes!

If modern nations repent, as the people of the ancient Assyrian capital of Nineveh did after the prophet Jonah delivered God's warning to them (as described in the book of Jonah), they can avoid the dreadful punishments prophesied to come. But even if only the few of us reading this article repent before the time of tribulation arrives, God will keep us in His care.

Many of God's faithful followers will be protected from the tribulation (Revelation 3:10 Revelation 3:10 Because you have kept the word of my patience, I also will keep you from the hour of temptation, which shall come on all the world, to try them that dwell on the earth.
American King James Version× ). And, most importantly, Jesus promises eternal life to all who truly believe, turn from sin and persevere in their faithful obedience: "He who endures to the end shall be saved" (Matthew 24:13 Matthew 24:13 But he that shall endure to the end, the same shall be saved.
American King James Version× ).

Since we know that the handwriting is on the wall, what will we now choose to do?

Middle Ages

Middle Ages, a period of about 1,000 years in European history. It is also called the medieval period (from the Latin for “middle” and “age”). The history of Western civilization is traditionally divided into three periods—ancient, medieval, and modern. The Middle Ages is usually defined as the period between the fall of the last Roman emperor in the West (476 A.D.) and the fall of Constantinople to the Turks (1453) or the discovery of America (1492).

The custom of calling this period the “Middle Ages” began during the Renaissance, because scholars saw it as a barbaric era separating their own age from the glories of ancient Greece and Rome. The period, especially its early part, is sometimes called the “Dark Ages” because western Europe was overrun by barbarians and much of the culture and wealth of classical civilization was lost. (Many modern historians, however, prefer not to use this term, pointing out that two great civilizations—the Byzantine and the Arabic—flourished during this period and that many of the traditions of classical civilization were preserved in the monasteries of Western Europe.) Gradually a new civilization developed, dominated by the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church. During the later Middle Ages national kingdoms developed, commerce and exploration expanded, and science began to assume its modern form.

Government and Economy

The kingdoms that succeeded the Roman Empire were unstable. Charlemagne (742–814) reunited much of western Europe, but his empire was divided soon after his death. From about 900 to 1300 feudalism, a decentralized form of government, prevailed. After 1100 France, England, and Spain began to develop into strong monarchies.

During the early Middle Ages trade and commerce declined greatly from their level in ancient times. The manor, a unit consisting of village and fields, was practically self-sufficient. A lord ruled the manor, and peasants tilled the soil. Most of the peasants were serfs, unfree laborers. After 1000, trade revived, towns grew, and serfdom began to decline. Craftsmen and merchants settled in towns and organized guilds to protect their interests.

Life and Culture

The Three Estates. There were three social and political classes, or estates —nobles, clergy, and common people. The function of the nobles was to govern, and that of the clergy was to worship God and tend to society's religious needs. The common people, working as peasants, craftsmen, and merchants supported the two privileged classes. Even the wealthiest nobles and clergymen lacked comforts that are taken for granted in the modern world. The peasants usually lived on the verge of famine.

Amusements of the nobility included fighting, hunting, attending tournaments, and listening to the songs and stories of minstrels and bards. Markets, fairs, and church festivals provided entertainment for peasants and townspeople.

Religion. Almost all the people of western Europe were members of the Roman Catholic Church. The church owned vast lands and provided all formal education. The popes ruled central Italy and greatly influenced the politics of Europe.

Medieval people usually accepted the church's authority unquestioningly, though often violating its rules. Both common people and nobles were capable of acts of gross brutality, but also of religious enthusiasm and self-denial. The Crusades provided an outlet for both their religious zeal and their love of warfare. Because of the importance of religion in the Middle Ages, the period is called “The Age of Faith.”

Education. Medieval education was derived from Christian teachings and from Europe's classical heritage. By 1200, universities had been founded at Bologna, Paris, and Oxford, under the auspices of the church. The main intellectual movement, which arose between the 9th and 12th century, was scholasticism, an attempt to buttress Christian faith with formal reasoning.

Literature and the Arts. The medieval period was the formative age of European literature. The period began with the sagas, epics, and ballads of unlettered peoples, and ended with such masterpieces as the works of Dante and Chaucer.

The great Gothic cathedrals of Europe are a testament to medieval piety and devotion to beauty. Painting and sculpture stressed religious themes, often allegorically treated. New forms of music developed, both religious and secular.

References: The Middle Passage of the Atlantic Slave Trade

Bosman, William. 1967. A New and Accurate Description of the Coast of Guinea. New York : Barnes & Noble Inc.

Conneau, Theophilus Captain. 1976. A slavers’ Logbook, or 20 years’ residence in Africa. Prentice Hall, Inc.

Dow, George Francis. 1968. Slave ships and Slaving. Cambridge, Maryland: Cornell Maritime Press, Inc.

Drake, Rich’D. 1972. Revelations of a slave smuggler. Northbrook, Ill: Metro books, Inc.

Equiano, Olaudah. 1999. The life of Olaudah Equiano. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications Inc.

Falconbridge, Alexander. 1973. An Account of the Slave Trade off the Coast of Africa. New York: AMS Press.

Hill, Pascoe Grenfell. 1993. Fifty Days on board a slave vessel. Black classic press.

JMR. Exterminated by the Bloody Flux. National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London.

Munford 1991,, Clarence J. 1991. The Black Ordeal of Slavery and Slave Trading in the French West Indies 1625-1715. The Edwin Mellen Press ltd.

Palmer, Colin A. 2002. Captive Passage: The Transatlantic Slave trade and theMaking of the Americas. Newport News, Virginia: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Pierson, William D. 1977. White Cannibals, Black Martyrs: Journal of Negro historyLX11 pp.147-59, April.

Razi, Abu Bahr Muhammad. 2000. Smallpox: Inoculation, Vaccination, Eradication. History & Special Collections UCLA Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library.

Thomas, Hugh. 1997. The Slave Trade. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Watch the video: : Σε πολτοποίηση η Μέση και Εγγύς Ανατολή


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