Calvert APA-65 - History

Calvert APA-65 - History

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A county in Maryland.
The first Calvert(No. 2274), a motor boat, served in the Navy during 1917 1918.

(AP 65: dp. 8,889; 1. 491'; b. 65'6"; dr. 25'8"; s. 16 k.
cpl. 558; a. 1 6", 3 3"; cl. Crescent City)

The second Calvert (AP-65) was launched 22 May 1942 as Del Orleans by Bethlehem-Sparrows Point Shipyard, Inc., under a Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. M. G. Fitch; acquired by the Navy 30 September 1942; and commissioned the next day, Captain D. W. Loomis in command She was reclassified APA-32, I February 1943.

Calvert began the consistently superior service which was to win her a Navy Unit Commendation when she sailed from Norfolk 25 October 1943 for the invasion of North Africa. She competently landed her troops at Safi, French Morocco on 8 November, and 6 days later sailed for Norfolk to train troops in Chesapeake Bay for other invasions. On 8 June 1943 she departed for the Mediterranean and her second major assault landing, at Scoglitti, Sicily, where she skillfully put her troops ashore on 12 July.

By 3 August 1943, Calvert was back at Norfolk, a veteran of assault landings in the Atlantic, and now Pacific bound for stepping stone invasions to the Japanese homeland. She arrived at Pearl Harbor on 26 September to train and land troops of the 27th Division, USA, on Makin, Gilbert Islands, 20 November. Her busy schedule took the transport back to the west coast the following month to train troops for forthcoming amphibious assaults, and in January 1944 she was underway for the Marshalls where on 1 February her troops stormed ashore on Kwajalein for another successful invasion.

Calvertts next well-planned, well-executed operation was in the Marianas where she conducted diversionary landings off Tanapag Harbor at Saipan (16 24 June) and Tinian (24 July), an effort which added immeasurably to the success of the main assault. She returned to Pearl Harbor in August carrying 420 Japanese and Korean prisoners of war, and the following month was again westward bound to take part in the all-important invasion of the Philippines.

On 20 October 1944 Calvert was off Leyte dispatching her troops for the initial landings. She made a quick turn around and was back on 18 November to pour more men and equipment from New Guinea into the Philippines to ensure the Allied advance. At Cape Gloucester she embarked troops for another assault on the Philippines (9 January 1945) at Lingayen Gulf to begin the capture of Luzon. The following month, with troops embarked at Biak, Calvert successfully landed her assault waves at Mindoro on 9 February. The veteran Calvert was now ordered to the west coast for overhaul and conversion to an amphibious flagship, arriving Bremerton 26 March.

Calvert completed her conversion us the war ended in the Pacific, and on 24 August 1945 cleared for the Philippines to lift troops to Hiro Wan for the occupation of Japan. "Magic Carpet" duty, returning troops home to the west coast, was her assignment between 7 November 1945 and 31 May 1946 prior to arrival at Norfolk where she was placed out of commission in reserve 26 February 1947.

With the outbreak of war in Korea in the summer of 1950 Calvert was recalled to active service and recommissioned 18 October 1950. During her two tours in the Far East she trained troops in Japan and Korea, redeployed Korean troops, and transported troops to and from Korea from the west coast. Following this war Calvert remained on active service with the fleet, alternating west coast operations with cruises to the western Pacific. During this service she took part in the "Passage to Freedom" operation in the summer of 1954 when she lifted over 6,000 Indo Chinese civilians from Communist surrounded Haiphong to southern Viet Nam. In 1958 during the Middle East crisis and Lebanon landings by the 6th Fleet, Calvert, combat-loaded, stood ready with the 7th Fleet, alert for any extension of trouble in the Pacific. Alternating west coast operations with cruise to the western Pacific continued through 1960.

In addition to her Navy Unit Commendation, Calvert received eight battle stars for service in World War II and two for service in Korea.

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By using all the available evidence, investigators determined the identity of the woman in the lead coffin. She was Anne Wolseley Calvert, the first wife of Philip Calvert. He had come to America in 1657 and served as chancellor and governor of Maryland. At the time of her death (ca. 1680), she would have been the most socially prominent woman in the colony.

The infant buried next to her was probably the child of her husband and Jane Sewell, the woman he married after Anne Calvert died. DNA analysis confirms this to be the son of Philip Calvert.

Calvert APA-65 - History

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美國海軍的直昇機登陸突擊艦(Landing Helicopter Assault)是一種擁有可供直昇機起降的大型甲板,與容納與維修直昇機的機庫之大型兩棲突擊艦,在垂直起降(VTOL)定翼機出現之後,此類船艦也肩負起輕至中型航空母艦的任務角色。LHA通常也擁有可收納、操作登陸艇或氣墊船的井圍甲板(well deck)與閘門設備,但最新銳的美利堅級之前兩艘(LHA-6及LHA-7)卻完全不擁有操作登陸作戰艦艇的能力,而以空中武力的強化為重點,是此類船艦的特例。但自本級第三艦「布干維爾號(USS Bougainville)」(LHA-8)後,又將再重新加設井圍甲板,以增強操作登陸艇或氣墊船之能力。

舷號 艦名 級別 狀態 註釋
LHA-1 Tarawa 塔拉瓦號 ( 英语 : USS Tarawa (LHA-1) ) 塔拉瓦級 除役
LHA-2 Saipan 賽班號 ( 英语 : USS Saipan (LHA-2) ) 塔拉瓦級 除役
LHA-3 Belleau Wood 貝勒森林號 ( 英语 : USS Belleau Wood (LHA-3) ) 塔拉瓦級 除役
LHA-4 Nassau 拿騷號 ( 英语 : USS Nassau (LHA-4) ) 塔拉瓦級 除役
LHA-5 Peleliu 貝里琉號 塔拉瓦級 除役
LHA-6 America 美利堅號 美利堅級 服役中
LHA-7 Tripoli 的黎波里號 ( 英语 : USS Tripoli (LHA-7) ) 美利堅級 服役中
LHA-8 Bougainville 布干維爾號 ( 英语 : USS Bougainville (LHA-8) ) 美利堅級 建造中
LHA-9 美利堅級 已簽約

美國海軍的直昇機登陸船塢艦(Landing Helicopter Dock)大體上擁有與LHA類似的大型飛行平台與井圍甲板,用途幾乎相同。LHD與LHA之間主要的差異在於LHD擁有較大的船塢空間以容納較多的登陸艇或氣墊船,側重水面登陸作戰能力,而有別於以空中武力為主的LHA。

舷號 艦名 級別 狀態 註釋
LHD-1 Wasp 胡蜂號 ( 英语 : USS Wasp (LHD-1) ) 胡蜂級 服役中
LHD-2 Essex 艾賽克斯號 ( 英语 : USS Essex (LHD-2) ) 胡蜂級 服役中
LHD-3 Kearsarge 基薩奇山號 胡蜂級 服役中
LHD-4 Boxer 拳師號 ( 英语 : USS Boxer (LHD-4) ) 胡蜂級 服役中
LHD-5 Battan 巴單號 ( 英语 : USS Bataan (LHD-5) ) 胡蜂級 服役中
LHD-6 Bonhomme Richard 好人理查號 胡蜂級 除役
LHD-7 Iwo Jima 硫磺島號 ( 英语 : USS Iwo Jima (LHD-7) ) 胡蜂級 服役中
LHD-8 Makin Island 馬金島號 ( 英语 : USS Makin Island (LHD-8) ) 胡蜂級 服役中

美國海軍的兩棲指揮艦主要是作為兩棲艦隊指揮官的旗艦,因此側重其通訊設備與指揮官及其幕僚的會議及生活空間。在二戰時代美國海軍原本將指揮艦的艦級命名為「兩棲艦隊旗艦」(Amphibious Force Flagship),但是其艦級代號「AGC」卻是源自「C類通用輔助艦」(General Auxiliary, sub-class C)的縮寫,起因於早期的此類船艦通常是由其他類的 輔助艦 ( 英语 : Auxiliary ship ) (運輸艦、登陸艦,甚至商船)加強通訊設備之後改裝而來而非特別建造。麥金利山號(USS Mount McKinley AGC-7)是美國海軍第一艘專為了作為指揮艦而建造的此級軍艦,雖然在啟用時仍沿用AGC的艦級代碼,但在1969年1月1日時更改類別,命名為「兩棲指揮艦」(Amphibious Command Ship),其艦級代號「LCC」是「指揮與通訊登陸艦」(Landing ship Command & Control)的縮寫,自此之後的指揮艦皆開始改用LCC的艦級代號。

舷號 艦名 級別 狀態 註釋
AGC-1 Appalachian 阿帕拉契號 ( 英语 : USS Appalachian (AGC-1) ) 阿帕拉契級 除役
AGC-2 Blue Ridge 藍嶺號 ( 英语 : USS Blue Ridge (AGC-2) ) 阿帕拉契級 除役
AGC-3 Rocky Mount 洛磯山號 ( 英语 : USS Rocky Mount (AGC-3) ) 阿帕拉契級 除役
AGC-4 Ancon 國旗山號 ( 英语 : USS Ancon (AGC-4) ) 阿帕拉契級 除役 起造時原為越洋客輪,曾陸續用於陸軍運輸艦(USAT Ancon)、海軍運輸艦(USS Ancon AP-66)等用途
AGC-5 Catoctin 凱托克廷號 ( 英语 : USS Catoctin (AGC-5) ) 阿帕拉契級 除役 起造時原為越洋客輪瑪麗·惠特里奇號(SS Mary Whitridge)
AGC-6 Duane 杜恩號 ( 英语 : USCGC Duane (WPG-33) ) 阿帕拉契級 除役 起造時原為海岸警備隊緝私艦威廉·J·杜恩號(USCGC William J. Duane WPG-33),原本預計改造後交由海軍使用,但計畫從未實行,因此保留海岸警備隊的代號「W」而成為WAGC-6,之後變更艦級為 高續航力緝私艦 ( 英语 : High endurance cutter ) WHEC-6。
AGC-7/LCC-7 Mount McKinley 麥金利山號 ( 英语 : USS Mount McKinley (AGC-7) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-8 Mount Olympus 奧林帕斯山號 ( 英语 : USS Mount Olympus (AGC-8) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-9 Wasatch 瓦薩奇號 ( 英语 : USS Wasatch (AGC-9) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-10 Auburn 奧本號 ( 英语 : USS Auburn (AGC-10) ) 麥金利山級 除役 起造時原名卡特凱號(Katkay),建造半途改名。
AGC-11/LCC-11 Eldorado 艾多拉多號 ( 英语 : USS Eldorado (AGC-11) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-12/LCC-12 Estes 埃斯特斯號 ( 英语 : USS Estes (AGC-12) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-13 Panamint 帕那敏號 ( 英语 : USS Panamint (AGC-13) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-14 Teton 提頓號 ( 英语 : USS Teton (AGC-14) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-15 Adirondack 亞迪朗達克號 ( 英语 : USS Adirondack (AGC-15) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-16/LCC-16 Pocono 波科諾號 ( 英语 : USS Pocono (AGC-16) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-17/LCC-17 Taconic 塔科尼克號 ( 英语 : USS Taconic (AGC-17) ) 麥金利山級 除役
AGC-18 Biscayne 比斯開號 ( 英语 : USS Biscayne (AVP-11) ) 麥金利山級 除役 啟用時原為 巴尼給級水上飛機母艦 ( 英语 : Barnegat-class seaplane tender ) AVP-11,1943年時改用途為兩棲艦隊旗艦。
AGC-369 Williamsburg 威廉斯堡號 ( 英语 : USS Williamsburg (AGC-369) ) - 除役 啟用時原為私人遊艇亞拉斯號(Aras),二戰時由海軍徵用改裝為砲艇威廉斯堡號(USS Williamsburg PG-56),二戰結束前進行指揮艦改造並賦予舷號AGC-369,但改造還沒完成對日作戰就結束,因此改作總統遊艇用途。1962年時除役,交由伍茲霍爾海洋研究所使用,成為海洋研究船安東·布魯號(Anton Bruun)。
LCC-19 Blue Ridge 藍嶺號 藍嶺級 ( 日语 : ブルー・リッジ級揚陸指揮艦 ) 服役中
LCC-20 Mount Whitney 惠特尼山號 藍嶺級 服役中

船塢平台登陸艦(Landing Platform Dock, LPD),或稱為兩棲運輸船塢艦(Amphibious transport dock),是一種擁有井圍甲板與直昇機起降平台的兩棲作戰艦艇。在近代的美國海軍兩棲船艦劃分中,LPD與船塢登陸艦(Landing Ship Dock, LSD)、LHA、LHD全都是同時擁有井圍甲板與飛行甲板的登陸作戰艦艇,其主要不同點在於與飛行有關的設備完整程度,其中航空武力最弱的LSD只擁有一個簡單的飛行甲板,LPD除了飛行甲板外還設有機庫,LHD、LHA則是擁有全通式的飛行甲板(LSD、LPD通常是配置艦尾飛行甲板)。

舷號 艦名 級別 狀態 註釋
LPD-1 Raleigh 羅里號 ( 英语 : USS Raleigh (LPD-1) ) 羅里級 ( 英语 : Raleigh-class amphibious transport dock ) 除役
LPD-2 Vancouver 溫哥華號 ( 英语 : USS Vancouver (LPD-2) ) 羅里級 除役
LPD-3/AGF-3 La Salle 拉沙爾號 ( 英语 : USS La Salle (AGF-3) ) 羅里級 除役 拉沙爾號在1972年時改裝為指揮艦,賦予AGF-3的舷號(AGF是輔助指揮艦、Auxiliary Command Ship的縮寫)。
LPD-4 Austin 奧斯丁號 ( 英语 : USS Austin (LPD-4) ) 奧斯丁級 除役
LPD-5 Ogden 奧格登號 ( 英语 : USS Ogden (LPD-5) ) 奧斯丁級 除役
LPD-6 Duluth 杜魯斯號 ( 英语 : USS Duluth (LPD-6) ) 奧斯丁級 除役
LPD-7 Cleveland 克利夫蘭號 ( 英语 : USS Cleveland (LPD-7) ) 奧斯丁級 除役
LPD-8 Dubuque 迪比克號 ( 英语 : USS Dubuque (LPD-8) ) 奧斯丁級 除役
LPD-9 Denver 丹佛號 ( 英语 : USS Denver (LPD-9) ) 奧斯丁級 除役
LPD-10 Juneau 朱諾號 ( 英语 : USS Juneau (LPD-10) ) 奧斯丁級 除役
LPD-11/AGF-11 Coronado 科羅納多號 ( 英语 : USS Coronado (AGF-11) ) 奧斯丁級 除役 在1980年時進行通訊用上層結構的改裝,而成為兩棲指揮艦AGF-11。
LPD-12 Shreveport 什里夫波特號 ( 英语 : USS Shreveport (LPD-12) ) 奧斯丁級 除役
LPD-13 Nashville 納什維爾號 ( 英语 : USS Nashville (LPD-13) ) 奧斯丁級 除役
LPD-14 Trenton 特倫頓號 ( 英语 : USS Trenton (LPD-14) ) 奧斯丁級 除役 2007年時售予印度海軍,改名為 河馬號 ( 英语 : INS Jalashwa (L41) ) (INS Jalashwa L41)。
LPD-15 Ponce 龐塞號 奧斯丁級 除役 經改裝作為 漂浮前線發動基地 ( 英语 : Mobile Landing Platform ) (Afloat Forward Staging Base, AFSB)與雷射武器系統(Laser Weapon System, LaWS)等新技術的實驗平台使用。
LPD-17 San Antonio 聖安東尼奧號 ( 英语 : USS San Antonio (LPD-17) ) 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-18 New Orleans 紐奧良號 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-19 Mesa Verde 梅薩維德號 ( 英语 : USS Mesa Verde (LPD-19) ) 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-20 Green Bay 綠灣號 ( 英语 : USS Green Bay (LPD-20) ) 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-21 New York 紐約號 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-22 San Diego 聖地牙哥號 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-23 Anchorage 安克拉治號 ( 英语 : USS Anchorage (LPD-23) ) 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-24 Arlington 阿靈頓號 ( 英语 : USS Arlington (LPD-24) ) 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-25 Somerset 桑莫塞特號 ( 英语 : USS Somerset (LPD-25) ) 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-26 John P. Murtha 約翰·穆爾沙號 ( 英语 : USS John P. Murtha (LPD-26) ) 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-27 Portland 波特蘭號 ( 英语 : USS Portland (LPD-27) ) 聖安東尼奧級 服役中
LPD-28 Fort Lauderdale 勞德代爾堡號 ( 英语 : USS Fort Lauderdale (LPD-28) ) 聖安東尼奧級 建造中
LPD-29 Richard M. McCool Jr. 小理查德·M·麥庫爾號 ( 英语 : USS Richard M. McCool Jr. (LPD-29) ) 聖安東尼奧級 合約已簽訂

直昇機平台登陸艦(Landing Platform Helicopter, LPH)是一種主要供直昇機與垂直升降定翼機起降的兩棲作戰用艦艇,可以說是直昇機航空母艦的延伸。美國海軍只曾開發過一個LPH專用艦級( 硫磺島級 ( 英语 : Iwo Jima-class amphibious assault ship ) ),但曾將三艘二戰時代建造的航空母艦改作LPH用途。LPH是同時擁有飛行甲板與水面作戰用井圍甲板的兩棲突擊艦類軍艦之先驅者,但其角色之後被LHA與LHD給取代。

舷號 艦名 級別 狀態 註釋
Block Island 布洛克島號 ( 英语 : USS Block Island (CVE-106) ) 啟航灣級 除役 布洛克島號是啟航灣級護衛航空母艦的二號艦,建造時原名日落灣號(Sunset Bay),但卻是以布洛克島號之名完工下水,賦予CVE-106的舷號。1957年時,原本預計改造為一艘兩棲突擊艦LPH-1但計畫沒有實現,直到1959年除籍時仍然維持CVE-106之舷號。
LPH-2 Iwo Jima 硫磺島號 ( 英语 : USS Iwo Jima (LPH-2) ) 硫磺島級 ( 英语 : Iwo Jima-class amphibious assault ship ) 除役
LPH-3 Okinawa 沖繩號 ( 英语 : USS Okinawa (LPH-3) ) 硫磺島級 除役
Boxer 拳師號 艾賽克斯級 除役 原為一艘長體艾賽克斯級航空母艦,但在1958年時開始進行實驗性的船身內部改裝,成為直昇機平台登陸艦LPH-4。
Princeton 普林斯頓號 艾賽克斯級 除役 原為一艘長體艾賽克斯級航空母艦,起造時原名福治谷號(Valley Forge),下水時改名普林斯頓。
Thetis Bay 西提斯灣號 ( 英语 : USS Thetis Bay (CVE-90) ) 卡薩布蘭卡級 除役 原為一艘卡薩布蘭卡級護衛航空母艦,1955年時改裝為直昇機突擊航空母艦並賦予CVHA-1的舷號,是美國海軍第一艘此類型的船艦。1959年時再次更改舷號成為LPH-6,以便與其他LPH的編號統一。
LPH-7 Guadalcanal 瓜達康納爾號 ( 英语 : USS Guadalcanal (LPH-7) ) 硫磺島級 除役
Valley Forge 佛吉谷號 艾賽克斯級 除役 原為一艘長體艾賽克斯級航空母艦CV-45,1952年時更改艦級為攻擊航空母艦CVA-45,1954年又改為反潛航空母艦CVS-45。1961年時進廠改裝為直昇機兩棲攻擊母艦後,賦予LPH-8的新舷號。
LPH-9 Guam 關島號 ( 英语 : USS Guam (LPH-9) ) 硫磺島級 除役
LPH-10 Tripoli 的黎波里號 ( 英语 : USS Tripoli (LPH-10) ) 硫磺島級 除役
LPH-11 New Orleans 紐奧良號 ( 英语 : USS New Orleans (LPH-11) ) 硫磺島級 除役
LPH-12 Inchon 仁川號 ( 英语 : USS Inchon (LPH-12) ) 硫磺島級 除役

船塢登陸艦(Dock landing ship,又稱為Landing Ship, Dock,縮寫為LSD)是一種配置有井圍甲板的兩棲作戰艦艇,這類船隻通被用作登陸艇或氣墊船等更小型登陸船隻的母艦,可在惡劣的海象中直接裝卸物資、設備與人員。美國海軍的LSD通常不配置LST(戰車登陸艦)那般的船艏可開啟吊橋式閘門,能直接搶灘卸下戰車與士兵,而是將閘門設於艦尾。美國海軍是以與航空能力相關的設備等級來區別同樣設置有井圍甲板與飛行甲板的幾種兩棲突擊艦,其中只配置直昇機甲板的稱為LSD,配有機庫乃至於全通式飛行甲板的則分類為LPD、LHD與LHA。

艾許蘭級 ( 英语 : Ashland-class dock landing ship ) (Ashland-class)是美國最早的LSD艦級,此級軍艦在開發出期原本是歸類為「機械化砲兵運輸艦」(Mechanized Artillery Transports, APM)類別,屬於 輔助艦 ( 英语 : Auxiliary ship ) (Auxiliary ship)的大類底下。但在實際建造之前就已轉分類至兩棲作戰艦類別之下。

舷號 艦名 級別 狀態 註釋
LSD-1 Ashland 艾許蘭號 ( 英语 : USS Ashland (LSD-1) ) 艾許蘭級 ( 英语 : Ashland-class dock landing ship ) 除役
LSD-2 Belle Grove 貝爾格羅夫號 ( 英语 : USS Belle Grove (LSD-2) ) 艾許蘭級 除役
LSD-3 Carter Hall 卡特莊號 ( 英语 : USS Carter Hall (LSD-3) ) 艾許蘭級 除役
LSD-4 Epping Forest 埃平森林號 ( 英语 : USS Epping Forest ) 艾許蘭級 除役
LSD-5 Gunston Hall 岡斯頓莊號 ( 英语 : USS Gunston Hall (LSD-5) ) 艾許蘭級 除役 1970年時售予阿根廷海軍,改名為「坎迪多·德·拉薩拉號」(ARA Cándido de Lasala Q-43)
LSD-6 Lindenwald 林登瓦德號 ( 英语 : USS Lindenwald (LSD-6) ) 艾許蘭級 除役
LSD-7 Oak Hill 橡樹丘號 ( 英语 : USS Oak Hill (LSD-7) ) 艾許蘭級 除役
LSD-8 White Marsh 白澤號 ( 英语 : USS White Marsh (LSD-8) ) 艾許蘭級 除役 1960年時出借中華民國,成為第一代的「中正號」(ROCS Chung Cheng LSD-191),1977年時正式轉移船籍予中華民國海軍,1985年時除役報廢,「中正號」艦名由另一艘船塢登陸艦 康斯塔克號 ( 英语 : USS Comstock (LSD-19) ) (USS Comstock LSD-19)承襲,成為第二代中正艦。
LSD-13 Casa Grande 卡薩格蘭德號 ( 英语 : USS Casa Grande (LSD-13) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 ( 英语 : Casa Grande-class dock landing ship ) 除役 原本是根據租借法案預計替英國皇家海軍所建造的英國機動化砲兵運輸艦BAPM-5,並命名為「波特威號」(HMS Portway F144)。實際開始建造時更改艦級,成為LSD-13,並改名為「長矛號」(HMS Spear),但在尚未完工前就與姊妹艦LSD-14、LSD-15一同被轉調回美國海軍使用,改名「卡薩格蘭德號」並成為此級登陸艦的一號艦。
LSD-14 Rushmore 拉什摩爾號 ( 英语 : USS Rushmore (LSD-14) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役 原本是根據租借法案預計替英國皇家海軍所建造的英國機動化砲兵運輸艦BAPM-6,並命名為「長劍號」(HMS Sword),之後又改名為「施瓦許威號」(HMS Swashway F145)。實際開始建造時更改艦級,成為LSD-14,但在尚未完工前就與姊妹艦LSD-13、LSD-15一同被轉調回美國海軍使用,以「拉什摩爾號」之名下水。
LSD-15 Shadwell 沙德韋爾號 ( 英语 : USS Shadwell (LSD-15) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役 原本是根據租借法案預計替英國皇家海軍所建造的英國機動化砲兵運輸艦BAPM-7,並命名為「戰斧號」(HMS Tomahawk),之後又改名為「華特威號」(HMS Waterway F146)。實際開始建造時更改艦級,成為LSD-15,但在尚未完工前就與姊妹艦LSD-13、LSD-14一同被轉調回美國海軍使用,以「沙德韋爾號」之名下水。
LSD-16 Cabildo 卡比多號 ( 英语 : USS Cabildo (LSD-16) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役
LSD-17 Catamount 山貓號 ( 英语 : USS Catamount (LSD-17) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役
LSD-18 Colonial 殖民號 ( 英语 : USS Colonial (LSD-18) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役
LSD-19 Comstock 康斯塔克號 ( 英语 : USS Comstock (LSD-19) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役 1984年原本已除役的康斯塔克號在拖曳至台灣拆解時,經中華民國海軍方面要求,將艦體狀況尚佳的康斯塔克號與中正號(LSD-191,原美國海軍白澤號(LSD-8))對調,舊中正號報廢拆解,康斯塔克號改名中正號,並以相同的LSD-191舷號繼續服役,直到2012年時才除役。 [1]
LSD-20 Donner 唐納號 ( 英语 : USS Donner (LSD-20) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役
LSD-21 Fort Mandan 曼丹堡號 ( 英语 : USS Fort Mandan (LSD-21) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役 1971年時轉移至希臘海軍,改名「納夫克拉圖薩號」(Nafkratousa L153),以取代另外一艘原本在希臘海軍服役、同艦名舷號的原英國皇家海軍卡薩格蘭德級登陸艦,伊斯特威號(HMS Eastway)。
LSD-22 Fort Marion 馬里安堡號 ( 英语 : USS Fort Marion (LSD-22) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役 1977年時轉移至中華民國海軍,成為鎮海號船塢登陸艦(ROCS Chen Hai LSD-192),於1999年7月時除役。
LSD-23 Fort Snelling 施奈林堡號 ( 英语 : USNS Taurus (T-AK-273) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役 以船塢登陸艦施奈林堡號起造的LSD-23,由於在建造半途遇到二次大戰結束,因此尚未完工就中止了建造計畫。半完成的船體在幾度轉手後成為滾裝船「加勒比女王號」(SS Carib Queen),之後軍事海運局(Military Sea Transportation Service, MSTS, 軍事海運指揮部 ( 英语 : Military Sealift Command ) 前身)將該艦簽下,成為車輛登陸艦(Vehicle Landing Ship)「 金牛座號 ( 英语 : USNS Taurus (T-AK-273) ) 」。1963年時,車輛登陸艦自輔助艦類別中拆分而出,改編入登陸艦類別,金牛座號舷號也隨之改為LSV-8,作為美軍在越戰的後勤支援。
LSD-24 Point Defiance 抵抗角號 卡薩格蘭德級 未完工 建造計畫終止,其艦名轉由 湯瑪斯頓級 ( 英语 : Thomaston-class dock landing ship ) 的LSD-31繼承。
LSD-25 San Marcos 聖馬可斯號 ( 英语 : USS San Marcos (LSD-25) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役 1971年時轉交由西班牙海軍操作,成為「加利西亞號」(Galicia TA31),之後更改舷號成為L31,並一直服役至1988年。
LSD-26 Tortuga 托圖加號 ( 英语 : USS Tortuga (LSD-26) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役
LSD-27 Whetstone 磨石號 ( 英语 : USS Whetstone (LSD-27) ) 卡薩格蘭德級 除役
LSD-28 Thomaston 湯瑪斯頓號 ( 英语 : USS Thomaston (LSD-28) ) 湯瑪斯頓級 ( 英语 : Thomaston-class dock landing ship ) 除役
LSD-29 Plymouth Rock 普利茅斯岩號 ( 英语 : USS Plymouth Rock (LSD-29) ) 湯瑪斯頓級 除役
LSD-30 Fort Snelling 施奈林堡號 ( 英语 : USS Fort Snelling (LSD-30) ) 湯瑪斯頓級 除役 LSD-30是美國海軍第二艘使用「施奈林堡」作為艦名的船塢登陸艦,但第一艘的LSD-23並沒有實際以船塢登陸艦的身份完工。
LSD-31 Point Defiance 抵抗角號 ( 英语 : USS Point Defiance (LSD-31) ) 湯瑪斯頓級 除役 LSD-31是美國海軍第二艘使用「抵抗角」作為艦名的船塢登陸艦,但第一艘的LSD-24尚未開工就計畫終止。
LSD-32 Spiegel Grove 史匹格號 ( 英语 : USS Spiegel Grove (LSD-32) ) 湯瑪斯頓級 除役
LSD-33 Alamo 阿拉莫號 ( 英语 : USS Alamo (LSD-33) ) 湯瑪斯頓級 除役 1990年除役並出租給巴西海軍,改名成「里約熱內盧號」(NDD Rio de Janeiro (G31)),並一直服役至2012年中。
LSD-34 Hermitage 隱士廬號 ( 英语 : USS Hermitage (LSD-34) ) 湯瑪斯頓級 除役 1989年除役並出租給巴西海軍,改名成「塞阿臘號」(NDD Ceará (G30))。
LSD-35 Monticello 蒙蒂塞洛號 ( 英语 : USS Monticello (LSD-35) ) 湯瑪斯頓級 除役
LSD-36 Anchorage 安克拉治號 ( 英语 : USS Anchorage (LSD-36) ) 安克拉治級 除役
LSD-37 Portland 波特蘭號 ( 英语 : USS Portland (LSD-37) ) 安克拉治級 除役
LSD-38 Pensacola 朋沙科拉號 安克拉治級 除役 1999年時移交給中華民國海軍,改名為「旭海號」(ROCS Hsu Hai LSD-193)。
LSD-39 Mount Vernon 維農山莊號 ( 英语 : USS Mount Vernon (LSD-39) ) 安克拉治級 除役
LSD-40 Fort Fisher 漁人堡號 ( 英语 : USS Fort Fisher (LSD-40) ) 安克拉治級 除役
LSD-41 Whidbey Island 惠德比島號 ( 英语 : USS Whidbey Island (LSD-41) ) 惠德比島級 服役中
LSD-42 Germantown 日耳曼城號 ( 英语 : USS Germantown (LSD-42) ) 惠德比島級 服役中
LSD-43 Fort McHenry 麥克亨利堡號 ( 英语 : USS Fort McHenry (LSD-43) ) 惠德比島級 服役中
LSD-44 Gunston Hall 岡斯頓莊號 ( 英语 : USS Gunston Hall (LSD-44) ) 惠德比島級 服役中
LSD-45 Comstock 康斯塔克號 ( 英语 : USS Comstock (LSD-45) ) 惠德比島級 服役中
LSD-46 Tortuga 托圖加號 ( 英语 : USS Tortuga (LSD-46) ) 惠德比島級 服役中
LSD-47 Rushmore 拉什摩爾號 ( 英语 : USS Rushmore (LSD-47) ) 惠德比島級 服役中
LSD-48 Ashland 艾許蘭號 ( 英语 : USS Ashland (LSD-48) ) 惠德比島級 服役中
LSD-49 Harpers Ferry 哈普斯渡口號 ( 英语 : USS Harpers Ferry (LSD-49) ) 哈珀斯渡口級 服役中
LSD-50 Carter Hall 卡特莊號 ( 英语 : USS Carter Hall (LSD-50) ) 哈普斯渡口級 服役中
LSD-51 Oak Hill 橡樹丘號 ( 英语 : USS Oak Hill (LSD-51) ) 哈普斯渡口級 服役中
LSD-52 Pearl Harbor 珍珠港號 ( 英语 : USS Pearl Harbor (LSD-52) ) 哈普斯渡口級 服役中

武裝運輸艦起源於二次大戰前,為了應付即將到來的戰事,美國軍方自民間徵調了許多隸屬於 美國商船隊 ( 英语 : United States Merchant Marine ) (United States Merchant Marine)的客輪與貨輪改裝成軍用運輸艦,賦予代表人員輔助艦的「AP」字首的舷號,主要用於士兵的輸送。之後軍方決定特別針對登陸作戰的需求發展一個正式的作戰用艦級,將其稱為武裝運輸艦(Attack Transport),其艦級代號APA是「武裝人員輔助艦」(Attack Personnel Auxiliary)的縮寫,以便與主要用於貨物運送的武裝貨物運輸艦(AKA)做區隔。為了能迅速地自海上將兵員送到陸地上,武裝運輸艦大都設置有大型的 吊艇柱 ( 英语 : davit ) ,可利用收納在甲板或艦橋旁的登陸艇將人員放置到海面上。部分APA甚至有輕型的裝甲或配備有小型的對空對海兩用砲。

Reclamation of Tribal Lands

During the 1960s and 1970s, Native American activists began making efforts to reclaim native lands ceded as the result of the Dawes Act and individual treaties. The Cayuga Indians, for example, had ceded 64,000 acres of land to the State of New York in 1795 under the Cayuga Ferry Treaty. Because the treaty was not ratified by Congress, it was illegal, and in 1980 the tribe sued the State of New York for the return of the property. After a court battle that lasted a full twenty years, New York was finally ordered to pay the Cayuga tribe $248 million, which is the largest award ever in a case involving tribal land claims.

Table 2: The War Relocation Authority Camps, 1942–1946

Name and LocationOpenedClosed
Poston, in Yuma County, AZ8 May 194228 November 1945
Tule Lake, in Modoc County, CA27 May 194220 March 1946
Manzanar, in Inyo County, CA1 June 194221 November 1945
Gila River, in Pinal County, AZ20 July 194210 November 1945
Minidoka, in Jerome County, ID10 August 194228 October 1945
Heart Mountain, in Park County, WY12 August 194210 November 1945
Granada, in Prowers County, CO27 August 194215 October 1945
Topaz, in Millard County, UT11 September 194231 October 1945
Rohwer, in Desha County, AR18 September 194230 November 1945
Jerome, in Drew & Chicot Counties, AR6 October 194230 June 1944

U.S. Army, Western Defense Command, Final Report: Japanese Evacuation from the West Coast 1942 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1943): 256 Brian Niiya, ed., Encyclopedia of Japanese American History (New York: Checkmark Books, 2001): 174–175, 179, 190, 231–232, 266–267, 276, 337, 350–351, 390, 394–395.

FDR’s first choice to run the WRA was Milton S. Eisenhower, the younger brother of future President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Milton had accepted the job reluctantly, writing in April 1942, “I feel most deeply that when the war is over and we consider calmly this unprecedented migration of 120,000 people, we as Americans are going to regret the unavoidable injustices that may have been done.” One western governor cautioned him, “If you bring the Japanese into my state, I promise you they will be hanging from every tree.” Milton Eisenhower resigned two and a half months later. 34

“We did not know where we were,” one internee recalled. “No houses were in sight, no trees or anything green—only scrubby sagebrush and an occasional low cactus, and mostly dry, baked earth.” 38

Most adult internees worked for meager government salaries. They raised crops, cleaned the communal areas, cooked, provided clerical assistance, and transported goods. Unskilled laborers took home $12 per month, skilled workers earned $16, and professionals made $19. The Works Progress Administration also arranged for internees to work outside the camps. In the beginning, inmates helped during local harvests for a day or two. Later, the government authorized longer furloughs in midwestern cities to free up labor for defense work. Other Japanese Americans had indefinite leave to set up permanent resettlements outside the defense area as long as the internee could support him- or herself and reported any changes in address. 39

Parents and elders tried to create as normal an atmosphere as possible for young internees. “In camp we started getting organized because we knew we’d be there for a long time,” Mineta later remembered. “There were schools, theaters with candy counters movies were a dime. So the life was probably typical of what it might have been in any community anywhere, except you had barbed wire, armed guards, the sentries and the search lights.” 41

Such conditions eventually bred generational and cultural transformations. Before the camps, male issei heads of family held a significant amount of power. In the camps that status eroded. The Justice Department housed many of the patriarchs in separate facilities, forcing some out of communal activities because of their age or language abilities. Others suffered from depression. As a result, women and children performed much of the labor. They sat on organizations that communicated with the administrators and went out beyond the camps on work-release programs. The WRA banned Japanese-language instruction and outlawed Shinto ceremonies while the camp schools, taught by white teachers, stressed American patriotism. Rather than eating as a family unit, children and teenagers sat with their peer groups in the mess halls. Indeed, most social activities, from movies to sports, separated the young from their elders. 42

When the War Department began organizing the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, the WRA tried to identify inmates who would be willing to fight for the same government that imprisoned their families. But in order to qualify for military service, the nisei had to prove their loyalty by answering a lengthy questionnaire. 44

Much of the Japanese-American community had gone to the camps reluctantly, but quietly. For some, it was a way to assist the war effort and prove their loyalty. But over time, opposition within the camps took several forms. Internees criticized the loyalty survey and protested conditions in the camps. Some incidents turned violent. Eventually, the internees challenged the very legality of internment. Perhaps predictably, relatively few of them volunteered for military service. Unlike the high volunteer rates of Japanese Hawaiians who were not subject to imprisonment, by early 1944, only 1,200 mainland nisei had signed up. 46

Because many of the internees were American citizens, legal challenges to internment soon appeared before federal judges, and four cases made it to the U.S. Supreme Court. 49 The Supreme Court decided the first two cases, Hirabayashi v. United States and Yasui v. United States, in June 1943 (Gordon Hirabayashi of Seattle, Washington, and Minoru Yasui of Portland, Oregon, had separately challenged the WDC curfew). But the Justices unanimously sided with the government and stated that the curfew order fell within the “power to wage war successfully,” even if that meant singling out a group of people because of their ancestry. 50 One Justice initially dissented and compared the experience of Japanese Americans to Jews in Europe under Nazi Germany, but his opinion was later edited to support the court’s consensus that the internment program went “to the very brink” of constitutional authority. 51

By the fall of 1944, the Roosevelt administration and the WRA had begun phasing out the camp system and freeing prisoners it deemed “loyal,” that is, those who had answered affirmatively to the loyalty questionnaire. When America declared victory over Japan in August 1945, however, the camps still held 44,000 detainees. 54

Virtual Learning

Calvert Learning curriculum is designed with built-in supports for students learning outside of the traditional classroom to provide a comprehensive digital learning experience. Courses include a variety of multimodal learning activities, projects, and assessments that harness students' natural curiosity to develop a lifelong love of learning.

Blended Learning

The engaging digital activities, progress tracking, and automatic grading and feedback, combined with the benefits of in-person instruction and interaction, create a fun, effective, and efficient 21st century learning experience for students and teachers.

Digital + Print

Calvert Learning can be used in a soley digital format, with students accessing all lessons and resources through the online platform. For districts that want to give students opportunities to learn and practice offline, print content resources are also available.


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