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I don't understand what is the role of music in their lives and what is the relevance between sacrifices and music?
As a historical ethnomusicologist, I wish I could do fieldwork in the Ming court, observing the court citizens and asking them why state sacrifices and music played such a central role in their public and private lives. The emperors and scholar-officials cannot be reached now, but they have left a wealth of evidence that they found their state sacrifices and music expressive.
"State Sacrifices and Music in Ming China" - Joseph S.C. Lam
"Methodologies for historical ethnomusicology in the twenty-first century" by David G.Hebert and Jonathan McCollum in
Ceremony, even today, often integrates music into the process. Think of the
customary playing of 'Pomp and Circumstance' during a graduation ceremony
the National Anthem to begin a sporting event
'Hail to the Chief' announcing the entry of the President of the United States
various national anthems to salute the medal winners at the Olympic games
the Wedding March during a marriage
- or 'Amazing Grace' played on bagpipes during some funeral processions
. This music is all integrated into our understanding of these events, and has become part of many of our current(american) ceremonies.
The Ming Dynasty was no different. Several rituals were performed on a regular basis, and they had accompanying ritual music and dance performances. From AsianArt.org:
Many of the rituals were seasonal, and by the Ming dynasty there was at least one every month; these rituals took on prescribed forms with carefully determined and properly performed dance, movement, and sacrifices.
Two of the larger rituals, were the Sacrifice to Heaven, and the Sacrifices to Imperial Ancestors. These were ritual type events, with very specific forms and procedures to be followed.
from wiki on the Temple of Heaven:
In ancient China, the Emperor of China was regarded as the Son of Heaven, who administered earthly matters on behalf of, and representing, heavenly authority. To be seen to be showing respect to the source of his authority, in the form of sacrifices to heaven, was extremely important. The temple was built for these ceremonies, mostly comprising prayers for good harvests.
Twice a year the Emperor and all his retinue would move from the Forbidden City through Beijing to encamp within the complex, wearing special robes and abstaining from eating meat. No ordinary Chinese was allowed to view this procession or the following ceremony. In the temple complex the Emperor would personally pray to Heaven for good harvests. The highpoint of the ceremony at the winter solstice was performed by the Emperor on the Earthly Mount. The ceremony had to be perfectly completed; it was widely held that the smallest of mistakes would constitute a bad omen for the whole nation in the coming year.
Ritual music forms in China are discussed in more detail, including intruements used and a sample audio file, under the heading Yayue.
Yayue (Chinese: 雅樂; literally: "elegant music") was originally a form of classical music and dance performed at the royal court in ancient China. The basic conventions of yayue were established in the Western Zhou. Together with law and rites, it formed the formal representation of aristocratic political power.
The music of the Ming Dynasty was a "throwback" to ancient Kun Qu music that went back roughly two millennia, to before the Birth of Christ. It was a deeper, sadder kind of music that the lively music favored by the Yuan (Mongol) dynasty. It harkened to a time when people lived barely on the edge of subsistence (most of China had advanced beyond that by the mid first Millennium, or what the Europeans call the Dark Ages), except that the Ming Dynasty was one of the more tragic dynasties in relatively modern Chinese histories. The idea of needing sacrifices to appease the gods was an element of Ming music, and notably absent from culture of other modern Chinese dynasties, while being a "staple" of the ancient ones, as well as many other non-Chinese cultures from before the birth of Christ.
Early Chinese Music Resources
The Weishi Yuepu 《魏氏乐谱》 is a collection of Chinese yanyue (palace entertainment music) pieces compiled by Wei Hao (魏浩, courtesy name Wei Ziming, 魏子明), a music scholar of Chinese heritage, in Nagasaki, Japan in 1768, during the Edo (Tokugawa) period, which was also the 33rd year of the reign of the Qing Dynasty emperor Qianlong. This music is believed to have been in use in the imperial court in Beijing in the late Ming Dynasty (early 17th century). The collection comprises 50 tunes that include vocal pieces with texts from the "Shijing" (Confucian "Classic of Poetry") and Han Dynasty yuefu, as well as poems from the Tang and Song dynasties. These tunes were originally in the possession of Wei Shuanghou (魏双侯, courtesy name Wei Zhiyan, 魏之琰 c. 1617-1689), a palace music master of the late Ming Dynasty from Fuqing, Fuzhou, Fujian province who fled to Nagasaki, Japan upon that dynasty's fall in 1644. Wei Shuanghou's fourth-generation descendant Wei Hao, who prepared the Weishi Yuepu, was a Chinese music specialist employed by the Tokugawa court. At that time in Japan this style of music was called Mingaku (明樂 / みんがく, literally "music from the Ming [Dynasty]"). Wei Hao selected the most important tunes out of a collection of more than 200 pieces and had them printed in 1768. The collection includes a broad array of scores for various wind, string, and percussion instruments, which are grouped into eight distinct modes.
The collection's contents are as follows:
1. 《江陵乐》 2. 《 寿阳乐 》
3. Yang Bai Hua 《 杨白花 》
4. Ganlu Dian 《 甘露殿 》
5. Die Lian Hua 《 蝶恋花 》
6. 《 估客乐 》
7. Dunhuang Yue 《 敦煌乐 》
8. 《 沐浴子 》
9. 《 圣 寿(无疆词) 》
10. Xi Qian Ying 《 喜迁莺 》
11 . Guan Shan Yue 《 关山月 》
12 . Tao Ye Ge 《 桃叶歌 》
13 . Guan Ju 《 关雎 》
14 . Qing Ping Diao 《 清平调 》
15 . Zui Qi Yan Zhi 《 醉起言志 》
16 . 《 行经华阴 》
17 . 《 小重山 》
18 . 《 昭夏乐 》
19 . Jiangnan Nong 《 江南弄 》
20 . Yu Hudie 《 玉蝴蝶 》
21 . Youzi Yin 《 游子吟 》
22 . Taixuan Guan 《 太玄观 》
23 . Yangguan Qu 《 阳关曲 》
24 . Xing Hua Tian 《 杏花天 》 (Apricot Blossoms Against the Sky)
25 . Cai Sangzi 《 采桑子 》 (Picking Mulberries)
26 . 《 思归乐 》
27 . 《 宫中乐 》
28 . Ping Fan Qu 《 平蕃曲 》
29 . 《 贺圣朝 》
30 . Rui He Xian 《 瑞鹤仙 》
31 . 《 清平乐 》
32 . 《 陇头吟 》
33 . 《 龙池篇 》
34 . Tian Ma 《 天马 》
35 . 《 月下独酌 》
36 . Qiu Feng Ci 《 秋风辞 》
37 . Wan Nian Huan 《 万年欢 》
38 . Bai Tou Yin 《 白头吟 》
39 . Dong Xian Ge 《 洞仙歌 》
40 . Qian Qiu Sui 《 千秋岁 》
41 . Shui Long Yin 《 水龙吟 》
42 . Fenghuang Tai 《 凤凰台 》
43 . 《 大圣乐 》
44 . Qing Yu An 《 青玉案 》
45 . Datong Dian 《 大同殿 》
46 . 《 玉台观 》
47 . Chang Ge Xing 《 长歌行 》
48 . Feng Zhong Liu 《 风中柳 》 (Wind in the Willows)
49 . 《 庆春泽 》
50. 《 齐天乐 》
Chow-Morris, Kim. 2010. “Going with the Flow: Embracing the Tao of China’s Jiangnan Sizhu.” Asian Music 41 (2), 59-87.
Lam, Joseph. 1998. State Sacrifices and Music in Ming China: Orthodoxy, Creativity, and Expressiveness. New York: State University of New York Press.
Lau, Frederick. 1991. “The Music and Musicians of the Traditional Dizi in the People’s Republic of China.” D.M.A. dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
_________. 2008. Music in China: Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture. New York: Oxford University Press.
Liu, Marjory Bong-Ray. 1983. “Aesthetic Principles and Ornamental Style in Chinese Classical Opera-Kunqu.” Selected Reports in Ethnomusicology 4, 29-45.
Lu, Chui-Kuang. 2008. “Beiguan yinyue” in Encyclopedia of Taiwan Music. Taipei. Yuan-Liou Publishing Co., Ltd.
Mittler, Barbara. 1997. Dangerous tunes : the politics of Chinese music in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the People’s Republic of China since 1949. Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz.
Thrasher, Alan. 1978. “The Transverse Flute in Traditional Chinese Music.” Asian Music 10(1):92-114.
_________. 2005. “Confucian Ritual Music” in Edward Davis ed, Encyclopedia of Contemporary Chinese Culture. London and New York: Routledge, 155-56.
Wang, Ying-Fen. 2001. “Ensemble: Nanguan” in The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, vol. 7: East Asia: China, Japan, and Korea.
Witzleben, Lawrence. 1995. Silk and Bamboo Music in Shanghai. Kent: Kent State University Press.
_________, ed. 2001. “China” in The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, vol. 7: East Asia: China, Japan and Korea.
Tian Tan / Temple of Heaven
The Temple of Heaven, founded in the first half of the 15th century, is a dignified complex of fine cult buildings set in gardens and surrounded by historic pine woods. In its overall layout and in that of its individual buildings, it symbolizes the relationship between earth and heaven which stands at the heart of Chinese cosmogony, and also the special role played by the emperors within that relationship.
The Temple of Heaven is located in the southeastern part of modern-day Beijing, on the east side of Yongdingmennei Street. It once lay outside the ancient city precinct and was the site of imperial offerings to heaven during the Ming and Qing dynasties. Over the course of thousands of years of imperial offerings in China, it is the only one of such sites remaining today. A group of buildings, gardens, and surrounding groves, it is highly symbolic and is a museum of a very special nature. The State Council has declared it to be a key cultural protected unit and in 1998 it was listed by UNESCO as a World Cultural Heritage Site.
Construction of the Temple of Heaven was begun in 1420, during the Ming dynasty under the Emperor Yongle. After Yongle had settled on Beijing as the site of the capital, the buildings and surrounding areas were later rebuilt and enlarged during the reigns of Jiaqing and Qianlong of the Qing dynasty.
In the 18th year of Ming Dynasty Emperor Yongle's reign (1420), the Alter of Heaven and Earth was completed together with the garden wall. It was located 3.5 kilometres to the southeast of Zhengyang Gate of Beijing. The central building was a rectangular Great Sacrificial Hall to be used for "offering sacrifice to heaven and earth." To the southwest of Great Sacrificial Hall was the Fasting Palace. Pines were planted in the temple area.
In the 9th year of Ming Dynasty Jiajing Emperor's reign (1530), separate sacrificial rites were held for the heaven and earth. To the south of Great Sacrificial Hall was built a Circular Mound Altar to be used for worshipping heaven. Meanwhile, temples of earth, sun and moon were constructed respectively in the north, east and west of the city. The Altar of Heaven and Earth was then called the Temple of Heaven.
In the 24th year of Emperor Jiajing's reign (1545), the Great Sacrificial Hall was dismantled, and the round Hall of Daxiang was built on the original site and used to pray for bumper harvests. In the 32rd year of Emperor Jiajing's reign (1553), an outer city was built around Beijing city. The Temple of Heaven was included in the outer city and thus encircled by two rings of wall. The Imperial Music Office and Office of Animal Offerings outside the Temple of Heaven were also surrounded by the outer city wall.
In the 14th year of Qing Dyansty Emperor Qianlong's reign (1749), the Circular Mound was expanded. White marble was used instead of blue glaze. In the 16th year of Emperor Qianlong's reign (1751), the Hall of Daxiang was renovated. The three layers of blue, yellow and green tiles were replaced by blue glaze tiles. The hall was renamed Hall of Prayers for Bumper Harvests. Covering 273 hectares, the Temple of Heaven witnessed its heyday.
The three principal cult structures are disposed in a line on the central north-south axis. The sacrificial buildings are mainly in the Inner Altar, which is subdivided into two by a wall running east-west, the southern sector, known as the Circular Mound Altar, and the northern, the Altar of the God of Grain. The two altars are connected by an elevated brick path 360 m long, known as the Red Stairway Bridge. The main Temple of Heaven, the Circular Mound, repeats the symbolism of the walls, as the central round feature (Heaven) is inside a square enclosure (Earth). It consists of three circular platforms of white marble, decreasing in diameter, surrounded by balustrades in the same material.
Entry to the enclosure is effected by means of a series of monumental gates. There are 360 pillars in the balustrades, representing the 360 days of the ancient Chinese lunar year. The imperial throne would have been set up in the centre of the uppermost platform, symbolizing the role of the Emperor as the Son of Heaven and hence the link between Heaven and Earth. To the north of the Circular Mound is the Imperial Vault of Heaven. It was here that the emperor made offerings before retiring to the Fasting Palace (Palace of Abstinence).
The general layout of the Temple of Heaven incorporates the ancient Chinese configuration of a 'round heaven and a square earth.' This symbolic form ties in to a north-south geographic alignment, with the concept of 'north-round-south?square.' Two layers of walls surround the temple precincts. The outer wall's circumference is 6,553 meters with a space inside of 270,000 square meters, which is about four times the size of Beijing's Palace Museum. The site once occupied a large percentage of what was the outskirts of ancient Beijing.
There were a number of rites which were performed only by the emperor, who appeared in the character of high priest the ceremonies were separate and distinct in their character from that of the other religions of the people of China. For these rites there were several temples in Peking, and some of them, although not of sufficient height to justify the name of towers, are composed of a series of terraces, the Temple of Heaven being constructed in this way.
The Chinese did not apply any word in their language which means "temple" to these places of worship the use of this word is wholly European. According to the Chinese there are two altars, one called the south, and the other the north. Most of the travellers who have visited the place describe only the north altar, because it has a large and imposing house upon it. The south altar, which is really the most important of the two, but being less imposing, is generally overlooked. It is here that the emperor celebrated at the winter solstice, the most solemn of all the religious rites he has to perform.
The Yuanqiu Altar in the Temple of Heaven are located in the northern part of the Tiantan complex. They comprise a large and imposing set of buildings and are the most representative architecture of the Temple of Heaven. The lower part of the Qinian Hall is a three?tiered white marble round platform, surrounded by a stone railing. The upper part is a round-shaped hall that is built without cross beams. Its ceiling is arched and pointed and its roof is covered with blue glazed tiles. The circumference of the lower tier of the platform is 90.8 meters and its total height is 5.56 meters. The Hall is located in its very center, and has a diameter of 32.72 meters and a height of 38 meters, making the total height a bit more than 141 feet.
The top part of the Hall holds a round-shaped baoding or topknot that is gilded. Twenty-eight cypress (nanmu) pillars are arrayed around the Hall. Inside the hall, stand four dragon-well pillars with diameter of 1.2 meters, and height of 19.2 meters. The ambiance of this hall is enhanced by the way the ceiling rises towards the sky. On the northern side inside the hall is a dragon-carved throne on a supporting dais, and a stele to the ancestors and gods of the emperors. On a special day of the first month of every year, the emperor would lead his princes and officials here to pray for good harvests, and, if they were encountering drought, they would come here to pray for rain. On the various sides of the Qinian Hall are subsidiary buildings that were used for various imperial purposes. Altogether they form a harmonious group.
This altar is not as grand as the Qinian Hall but is still a very important part of the Tiantan, for this is where the emperor made sacrifices to heaven. The altar was built in the 9thyear of Jiaqing, or 1530. It was originally covered in blue-glazed tiles. In the 14th year of Qianlong (1749) it was expanded and was faced with marble, taking on its current aspect. The altar is round and divided into three levels, each with nine stairs leading up it on each of the four cardinal directions. In the center of the top level is a round central stone, with nine circles of stones arrayed around it. Each level has numerous indicators of nine or of multiples of nine. The craftsmen took pains to emphasize this number, since it was seen as an indicator of 'yang' or the male principle, and this in turn was seen as a confirmation of the intent of heaven.
Behind the circular altar lie a group of buildings including a round structure called the Emperor's mystic realm or Vault of Heaven. These buildings were begun in the 9th year of Jiaqing (1631). They were repaired in the 8th year of Qianlong (1743). They include a circular hall with pointed roofline, inside which the ceiling extends upward in layers. A carved stone base holds a stelae that celebrates the emperor. The thing that most attracts people's attention at this place is the 'echo' wall that surrounds it as well as the so-called triple-sound stones.
In addition to the temples and altars comprising the main architecture of the Tiantan, a number of subsidiary buildings exist that were used for operational purposes. These included rooms for cooking, preparing the sacrifices, and storing things. A building called the Zhaigong is where the emperor would sleep before making the sacrifices and praying to the gods of harvest. Another site of interest is believed to be one of the earliest groups of buildings at the Tiantan. It was built in the 18th year of Ming-dynasty Yongle (1420), and was specifically made for music to accompany the sacrifices. It served as a practice room for the music masters, and was also used for storing the instruments.
Ceremonial sacrifices to heaven were banned by the government of the Republic of China in 1911. By that date, 490 years after its foundation, the Temple of Heaven had witnessed 654 acts of worship to heaven by 22 Emperors of the Ming and Qing Dynasties. It was opened as a public park in 1918 and has been so ever since.
The Immense Power of the Chinese Eunuch Zhao Gao
While eunuchs were dismissed as potential threats due to their inability to found their own dynasties, they were entirely capable of bringing down ruling dynasties. The immense power that some eunuchs wielded corrupted them, turning them into greedy, ruthless, and scheming individuals.
In Chinese dramas and films about the Imperial court, eunuchs are often cast as villainous characters. Many instances of evil eunuchs can be found in Chinese history. The fall of the Qin dynasty, for instance, may be attributed to the eunuch Zhao Gao.
According to the historical records, Zhao Gao belonged to the ruling family of the state of Zhao, one of the seven states during the Warring Period. When Zhao Gao’s parents committed a crime, they were punished, and his brothers were castrated. It is traditionally thought that the same punishment was inflicted onto Zhao Gao.
Zhao Gao came into the service of Qin Shi Huang as he was an expert in law and punishment. This allowed Zhao Gao to rise through the ranks and become one of the emperor’s closest advisors. Upon the death of Qin Shi Huang, Zhao Gao and the Prime Minister / Chancellor, Li Si, orchestrated a coup by engineering the death of the heir apparent, Fusu, as well as two of his supporters, Meng Tian and Meng Yi.
Subsequently, Qin Shi Huang’s youngest son, Huhai, was installed as a puppet emperor. Three years later, a rebellion broke out, and Zhao Gao forced Huhai to commit suicide, fearing that the emperor might hold him responsible for the uprising. Zhao Gao then installed Ziying (either Fusu’s son, or Fusu’s uncle) as the new emperor.
A group of eunuchs. Mural from the tomb of the prince Zhanghuai, 706, Qianling, Shaanxi. ( Public Domain )
Knowing that Zhao Gao would dispose of him once he was no longer of use, Ziying turned the tables on Zhao Gao, and succeeded in killing him. The uprising was not quelled, however, and Ziying surrendered to Liu Bang, who founded the Han Dynasty. Thus, it may be said that the actions of the eunuch Zhao Gao was responsible for the fall of the Qin dynasty just three years after the death of Qin Shi Huang .
1. Introduction Joseph P. McDermott
2. Ancient Chinese ritual as seen in the material record Jessica Rawson
3. The feng and shan sacrifices of Emperor Wu of the Han Mark Edward Lewis
4. The imperial way of death in Han China Michael Loewe
5. The emperor as bodhisattva: the bodhisattva ordination and ritual assemblies of Emperor Wu of the Liang Dynasty Andreas Janousch
6. The death rites of Tan Daizong David L. McMullen
7. The ceremony of gratitude Oliver Moore
8. The imperial household cults Robert L. Chard
9. The emperor in the village: representing the state in south China David Faure
10. Emperor, elites, and commoners: the community pact ritual of the Late Ming Joseph P. McDermott
11. Manchu Shamanic ceremonies at the Qing court Nicola Di Cosmo
12. On theatre and theory: reflections on ritual in imperial Chinese politics James Laidlaw.
Joseph P. McDermott, University of Cambridge
The sounds of modernity in Chinese pop music
In 1940 the Chinese hit "Rose, Rose, I Love You" was released by Pathé Records in Shanghai and subsequently remade into numerous cover songs outside China. That a locally produced song could catapult onto the world stage was as much an endorsement of the music as it was a result of western orientalism. By all musical standards, this song was western style the song’s only reference to China being the title “China Rose” or its phonetic equivalent “May Kway.” Its international popularity reinforced western perceptions that Chinese pop music is derivative of Western norms, a notion that still persists. This paper calls those assumptions into question by exploring musical developments in the post-Mao era. In contrast to music of the earlier Shanghai era, the rock band Ershou meigui [Second-Hand Rose] localizes elements of Western rock music. Formed in the early 2000s, Ershou meigui has been praised for its unique brand of “national” (minzu) rock style in which the band privileges Chinese regional musical elements. This paper explores issues of modernity, individuality, agency, creativity, cosmopolitanism, and performativity against the backdrop of China’s emergence as a modern nation and global force. What is the nature of Chinese modernity and musical creativity? How does this new hybridized form become a resource that enables musicians to construct, shape, and imagine meanings for post-socialist China? How do musicians reposition themselves in the age of Chinese consumption and cosmopolitanism? Most importantly, I investigate how pop musicians mediate the dynamic relationship between fast-changing China and the world around them.
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What was the role of state sacrifices and music in Ming China? - History
The average person in Ancient China worked hard every day. They worked long hours each day and didn't have weekends off. However, throughout the year there were a number of national festivals. Families would gather together during these times and celebrate. Many of these festivals are still celebrated in China.
Spring Festival (Chinese New Year)
The most important festival of the year was the Spring Festival or Chinese New Year. The entire celebration lasts for 15 days. It starts with the first day of the New Year and ends with the Lantern Festival.
The Ancient Chinese have celebrated the Spring Festival as far back as the Shang Dynasty over 3000 years ago. According to Chinese mythology the celebration first started when a small village used the noise of firecrackers and drums to scare off the monster Nian.
The Spring Festival is a time for getting together with family, exchanging gifts, and lighting fireworks. The color red is also popular as it was used to help scare off the monster Nian.
The last day of the Spring Festival is a special celebration called the Lantern Festival. This festival first came about during the Han Dynasty. Lanterns were lit in honor of Buddha. Other traditions on this day include guessing riddles (which began during the Song Dynasty), eating rice dumplings, the lion dance, and the dragon dance.
The Qingming Festival occurs between April 4-6. It is also called the Clear and Bright Festival. Traditionally it marked the time of year for farmers to begin plowing and sowing the fields. It is considered a day of sacrifice to the ancestors. Traditions include sweeping the tombs of the dead, flying kites, planting trees, and eating only cold food.
The Dragon Boat Festival dates all the way back to the Warring States Period of the Zhou Dynasty. Legend has it that a famous poet named Qu Yuan killed himself on this day by jumping into a river when he learned that his homeland had been conquered. This festival takes place on the fifth day of the fifth lunar month. Traditions on this day include dragon boat racing, eating rice dumplings called zongzi, and wearing a perfume pouch to ward off evil spirits.
The Night of Sevens Festival
The Night of the Sevens Festival falls on the seventh day of the seventh lunar month. This festival was first celebrated during the Han Dynasty. The legend behind the festival is a love story that tells of a cowhand who fell in love with a maiden from heaven. However, the lovers were separated by the Queen of heaven. After trying to get back together for a long time, they finally met again on this day. Traditionally the day was a day to worship the stars and for young girls to pray for a good husband. Today it has become more of lovers' day like Valentine's Day.
The Moon Festival is celebrated in late September and celebrates the bounty of the harvest. It is also called the Mid-Autumn Festival. It has been celebrated in Ancient China since the Zhou Dynasty. The main tradition on this day is to eat moon cakes. This tradition started during the Mongol rule of the Yuan Dynasty.
Double Ninth Festival
This day is celebrated on the ninth day of the ninth lunar month. The number nine was special to the Ancient Chinese. It was the lucky number of the emperor and the dragon. Originally people would climb to the top of a hill or mountain and drink chrysanthemum tea to ward off evil spirits.
Winter Solstice Festival
This festival signals the shortest day of the year. It first became a popular day to celebrate during the Han Dynasty. This was an important festival throughout the history of Ancient China. People took the day off and met with friends and relatives. They also offered sacrifices to their ancestors.
Many improvements have been made in an effort to establish human rights, including allowing citizens to sue officials for abuse of authority, as well as the establishment of trial procedures including rights due process. China acknowledges in principle the necessity to protect human rights and is beginning to undergo a process to bring its practices up to standards with international norms. While in its beginning stages, the initial groundwork is being laid to protect citizens from a repeat of the totalitarian rule of China's history.
China politics are as fascinating as its traditional cultures, diverse landscape, and rare wildlife. Taking the time to learn a little bit about the country's politics will only add to the intimacy of your China travel experiences.
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Crossley-Holland, Peter. Tibetan Ritual Music. Lyrichord LL 181 and LLST 7181.
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