Jane Addams - Hull House, Biography and Progressive Era

Jane Addams - Hull House, Biography and Progressive Era


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Jane Addams (1860-1935) was a peace activist and a leader of the settlement house movement in America. As one of the most distinguished of the first generation of college-educated women, she rejected marriage and motherhood in favor of a lifetime commitment to the poor and social reform. Inspired by English reformers who intentionally resided in lower-class slums, Addams, along with a college friend, Ellen Starr, moved in 1889 into an old mansion in an immigrant neighborhood of Chicago. Hull-House remained Addams’s home for the rest of her life and became the center of an experiment in philanthropy, political action and social science research.

Jane Addams: Early Life & Education

Jane Addams was born in Cedarville, Illinois on September 6, 1860 to Sarah Adams (Weber) and John Huy Adams. She was the eighth of nine children and was born with a spinal defect that hampered her early physical growth before it was rectified by surgery. Her father was a friend of Abraham Lincoln’s who served in the Civil War and remained active in politics, though he was a miller by trade.

Young Addams graduated as valedictorian of Rockford Female Seminary at age 17 in 1881. (She formally received her Bachelor’s degree when the seminary became the Rockford College for Women the following year.) Her study of medicine was interrupted by ill health, and it wasn’t until a trip to Europe at age 27 with friend Ellen G. Starr that she visited a settlement house and realized her life’s mission of creating a settlement home in Chicago.

Jane Addams and Hull House

In 1889, Addams and Starr leased the home of Charles Hull in Chicago. The two moved in and began their work of setting up Hull-House with the following mission: “to provide a center for a higher civic and social life; to institute and maintain educational and philanthropic enterprises and to investigate and improve the conditions in the industrial districts of Chicago.”

Addams responded to the needs of the community by establishing a nursery, dispensary, kindergarten, playground, gymnasium and cooperative housing for young working women. As an experiment in group living, Hull-House attracted male and female reformers dedicated to social service. Addams always insisted that she learned as much from the neighborhood’s residents as she taught them.

Jane Addams Political Life

Having quickly found that the needs of the neighborhood could not be met unless city and state laws were reformed, Addams challenged both boss rule in the immigrant neighborhood of Hull-House and indifference to the needs of the poor in the state legislature. She was appointed to Chicago’s Board of Education in 1905 and helped found the Chicago school of Civics and Philanthropy before becoming the first female president of the National Conference of Charities and Corrections.

Addams and other Hull-House residents sponsored legislation to abolish child labor, establish juvenile courts, limit the hours of working women, recognize labor unions, make school attendance compulsory and ensure safe working conditions in factories. The Progressive party adopted many of these reforms as part of its platform in 1912. At the party’s national convention, Addams seconded the nomination of Theodore Roosevelt for president and campaigned actively on his behalf. She advocated for women’s suffrage because she believed that women’s votes would provide the margin necessary to pass social legislation she favored.

Addams publicized Hull-House and the causes she believed in by lecturing and writing. In her autobiography, 20 Years at Hull-House (1910), she argued that society should both respect the values and traditions of immigrants and help the newcomers adjust to American institutions. A new social ethic was needed, she said, to stem social conflict and address the problems of urban life and industrial capitalism. Although tolerant of other ideas and social philosophies, Addams believed in Christian morality and the virtue of learning by doing.

Jane Addams Anti-War Views

Because Addams was convinced that war sapped the reform impulse, encouraged political repression and benefited only munitions makers, she opposed World War I. She unsuccessfully tried to persuade President Woodrow Wilson to call a conference to mediate a negotiated end to hostilities.

During the war she spoke throughout the country in favor of increased food production to aid the starving in Europe. After the armistice she helped found the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, serving as president from 1919 until her death in 1935.

Vilified during World War I for her opposition to American involvement, a decade later, Addams had become a national heroine and Chicago’s leading citizen. In 1931, her long involvement in international efforts to end war was recognized when she was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931.

Jane Addams Death

Addams had a heart attack in 1926 and remained unwell for the rest of her life. She died of cancer on May 21, 1935. Thousands of people attended her funeral in the courtyard of Hull-House. She is buried in her family’s plot in Cedarville Cemetery in Cedarvillle, Illionis.

Allen F. Davis, American Heroine: The Life and Legend of Jane Addams (1973); Daniel Levine, Jane Addams and the Liberal Tradition (1973).


Settlement house Jane Addams

A settlement house was a kind of community center set up to help people living in crowded immigrant neighborhoods. They were run by volunteers from middle or upper class families who wanted to help improve life for those at the bottom. The most famous settlement house in the U.S. was started by Jane Addams in Chicago in 1889. Addams was from a fairly wealthy family Jane Addams (1860-1935) was a peace activist and a leader of the settlement house movement in America. As one of the most distinguished of the first generatio

Hull House was a settlement house in Chicago, Illinois, United States that was co-founded in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr.Located on the Near West Side of the city, Hull House (named after the original house's first owner Charles Jerald Hull) opened to serve recently arrived European immigrants. By 1911, Hull House had expanded to 13 buildings About Jane Addams and Hull-House Settlement Born in Cedarville, Illinois, on September 6, 1860, and graduated from Rockford Female Seminary in 1881, Jane Addams founded, with Ellen Gates Starr, the world famous social settlement Hull-House on Chicago's Near West Side in 1889 Hull House, one of the first social settlements in North America. It was founded in Chicago in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr to aid needy immigrants. It became a complex, containing a gymnasium, social and cooperative clubs, shops, housing for children, and playgrounds. Learn more about Hull House

The site's new permanent exhibit Re-Defining Democracy: Jane Addams and the Hull-House Settlement connects the mission of civic dialogue to the democratic values of Jane Addams and the residents of Hull House. In 1889 Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr purchased an abandoned Victorian mansion on Halsted Street in a booming immigrant. Jane Addams (September 6, 1860 - May 21, 1935) was an American settlement activist, reformer, social worker, sociologist, public administrator and author. She was an important leader in the history of social work and women's suffrage in the United States and advocated for world peace. She co-founded Chicago's Hull House, one of America's most famous settlement houses Jane Addams, a wealthy woman, was a pioneer of social reform. She lies and works in Hull House, a settlement house that assists poor immigrants with child ca.. Here is a documentary on Jane Addams, a pioneer in creating one of themost instrumental social settlements of North America

A progressive social reformer and activist, Jane Addams was on the frontline of the settlement house movement in the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries. She later became internationally respected for the peace activism that ultimately won her a Nobel Peace Prize in 1931, the first American woman to receive this honor Settlement houses, often pioneered and headed by women, were a key feature of social reform efforts in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, so, when visiting Chicago a couple of weeks ago, the Secret Victorianist took the opportunity to visit one of the most famous - Hull House, founded by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr in 1889 Laura Jane Addams, född 6 september 1860 i Cedarville, Illinois, död 21 maj 1935 i Chicago, Illinois, var en banbrytande amerikansk filantrop, feminist och nobelpristagare. Addams betraktas ofta som en av det sociala arbetets mödrar. [1] [2]Biografi. Addams föddes i en välbärgad familj. Hennes far var politiker och affärsman, och hon studerade först medicin Hull House grundades 1889 som ett allaktivitetshus och bär namnet efter dess förra ägare. Jane Addams inspirerades av Londons hemgårdar (settlement houses) och kom att starta ett i Chicago. Hull House påverkade den offentliga politiken för folkhälsa och utbildning, yttrandefrihet, bättre arbetskraftsförhållanden, invandrares rättigheter, rekreation och det offentliga rummet, konst.

Settlement house workers, in their work to find more effective solutions to poverty and injustice, also pioneered the profession of social work. Philanthropists funded the settlement houses. Often, organizers like Jane Addams made their funding appeals to the wives of the wealthy businessmen Second, settlement houses served a purpose for the reformers themselves, who were mostly college-educated women like Jane Addams. These women wanted to do things with the poor, not just do things. Jane Addams Place uses a trauma informed and family systems model to provide comprehensive clinical case management. While the focus is on locating and obtaining independent housing, case management services also include coordination of parenting education, employment, benefits, mental health services, addiction treatment, financial literacy and healthcare The Legacy of Jane Addams. Jane Addams passed away on May 28, 1935, leaving behind a legacy of reformed educational and social systems that spread widely across the US during the Depression. Unfortunately, many of Hull-House's programs were hit hard during the economic downturn, losing much-needed funding and sources of support

Jane Addams and Settlement Houses - Fasttrack Teachin

  • Jane Addams co-founded one of the first settlements in the United States, the Hull House in Chicago, Illinois, and was named a co-winner of the 1931 Nobel Peace Prize
  • This important piece exploring the motives of settlement house workers by Jane Addams was first published in 1892 and later appeared as chapter six of Twenty Years at Hull House (1910). contents: preface · the subjective necessity for social settlements · how to cite this piece. Jane Addams (1869-1935) is, perhaps, best known as a pioneering social worker and social activist, however she was.
  • Jane and Ellen returned with a new goal—to establish a settlement house in Chicago, one of the fastest growing cities in the country. Between 1860 and the 1890s, Chicago had grown from a large Western town of 100,000 to a massive modern city of one million

, the most prominent of the American settlement theoreticians, and founder of Hull-House in Chicago, described the movement as having three primary motivations The first was to add the social function to democracy, extending democratic principles beyond the political sphere and into other aspects of society Humanitarian and social reformer Jane Addams, born into wealth and privilege, devoted herself to improving the lives of those less fortunate. Although she is best remembered for establishing Hull House (a settlement house in Chicago for immigrants and the poor), Addams was also deeply committed to promoting peace, civil rights, and women's right to vote Jane Addams and Hull House Social reformer and pacifist Jane Addams was born on September 6 , 1860, in Cedarville, Illinois. After graduating from Rockford Female Seminary in 1881, Addams left her native Illinois for Philadelphia where she enrolled at the Woman's Medical College

Jane Addams Place. 1007 West Lehigh Avenue Philadelphia, PA 19133 Phone: 215.387.2587 Fax: 215.921.6200 . Department specific contacts. General (215)426.8610 ext. 1200 Executive Office David Chiles, (215) 426.8610 ext. 1246 Development and Community Relations (215) 426.8610 ext. 1218 Human resources (215 ) 426.8610 ext. 121 Hull House was the first and the most famous Settlement House in the entire United States. Jane Addams learned about Settlement Houses from her time spent at Toynbee Hall in London. A Settlement House is a neighborhood center focused on helping the members of the community with their problems in the hopes of bettering the neighborhood itself and helping those in need The more I study Jane Addams and the activities of Hull-House, the more I appreciate the wide and beautiful network of people she cultivated and the open arms of the settlement she led. In the narrative of Hull-House, there was a never ending flow of people with breathtaking stories to tell us about the American past

In 1889 Jane Addams founded Hull House in Chicago with Ellen Gates Starr. This settlement house, built in 1856, is dedicated to Addams and the Women of Hull House. Jane Addams (1860-1935) was a U.S. Social Justice pioneer, an author, an iconic figure for social justice, and a champion for those who lived on the margins of society Addams gave up a lot, considering her background to live in the slums of Chicago and to help people the way she did was amazing. During the sass's, settlement houses became more and more popular. She was a leader in this movement because of her writings and her lectures. Addams became more involved in national concerns . She developed an educational philosophy called Socialized education. The idea of the settlement house was presented and developed by her.

Jane Addams and the Settlement House Movement Millions of individuals moved to the United States during the great wave of immigration that began in 1880. Life for recently arrived immigrants could be very hard. Most immigrants headed for the nation's growing cities View Jane Addams: Settlement house from HISTORY 2700 at Anaheim High. Jane Addams: Settlement house Jennifer Regino Period:3 Jane Addams (1860 - 1935) Social worker, reformer, and pacifis ADDAMS, JANE (1860-1935) Founder and driving force behind Hull-House, the pioneer American settlement house [1], Jane Addams [2] is best known for her contribution to urban social service however, she was also an important and influential educator who espoused Progressive educational ideas an

Jane Addams and Hull House were pioneers of social reform in the United States. Addams' efforts, both through Hull House and independently, laid groundwork for women's rights, children's rights, workers' rights, and education still felt today Jane Addams, Residents of Hull House, and Rima Lunin Shultz. I Came a Stranger - The Story of a Hull House Girl Hilda Satt Polacheck. Lines of Activity: Performance, Historiography, Hull House domesticity Shannon Jackson. Mary Crane Nursery This document states that the Mary Crane Nursery was organized by Jane Addams and Hull House in 1907 Jane Addams was a prominent women's rights activist who help found the settlement house movement and published works such as, Why Women Should Vote, dedicated to improving the lives of women and the poor. Women like Jane Addams, backed by the Progressives, were able to greatly influence the public opinion In addition to the Jane Addams Hull-House Museum Collection that is housed at Hull-House on UIC's campus, the University of Illinois at Chicago Daley Library Special Collections maintains an extensive archive of papers related to Jane Addams, the Hull-House settlement and the social reformers of the Progressive era Hull-House is a settlement house in the United States that was co-founded in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr. Located in the Near West Side of Chicago, Illinois, Hull-House opened its doors to the recently arrived European immigrants. By 1911, Hull-House had grown to 13 buildings

At Settlement Houses, instruction was given in English and how to get a job, among other things. The first Settlement House was the Hull House, which was opened by Jane Addams in Chicago in 1889. These centers were usually run by educated middle class women. The houses became centers for reform in the women's and labor movements Jane Addams co-founded Hull House, the most famous of America's 400 social settlements. Addams led the settlement movement and successfully championed many Progressive-era reforms. She received the Nobel Peace Prize for her advocacy work for international world peace during and after World War I The Settlement then, is an experimental effort to aid in the solution of the social and industrial problems which are engendered by the modern conditions of life in a great city. [Source: Jane Addams, The Subjective Necessity for Social Settlements, in Twenty Years at Hull House. Jane Addams Twenty Years at Hull House 1910 CHAPTER 6 SUBJECTIVE NECESSITY FOR SOCIAL SETTLEMENTS The Ethical Culture Societies held a summer school at Ply-mouth, Massachusetts, in 1892, to which they invited several people representing the then new Settlement movement, that they migh How did settlement houses help immigrants? They gave them a home, taught them English, and about the American government, provided them with services. Who was Jane Addams

Identification: Settlement house for the poor founded by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr Date: Established in September, 1889 Location: Chicago, Illinois Significance: Hull-House provided numerous services for the poor, many of whom were immigrants, that helped immigrants to learn about American culture and life. The settlement house movement started in England in 1884 to provide education. Notes on Jane Addams, The Subjective Necessity for Social Settlements from Twenty Years at Hull House (1910) Speaking of a meeting of settlement house activists at a conference on Philanthropy and Social Progress (1892):. A book excerpt of Jane Addams, a social and political activist who lived from 1860-1935. Based on the Toynbee Hall settlement House in England, Addams founded Hull House in Chicago. The 150th anniversary of Addams' birthday is Sept. 6, 2010

Jane Addams' Hull House. Founded in 1889 and located on the University of Illinois campus, Hull House was a settlement house to provide social and educational opportunities for the working classes. Now, it is totally haunted and home of the devil baby Hull-House. HULL-HOUSE Laura Jane Addams was born on September 6, 1860 in Cedarville, Illinois, into a privileged middle class family.As a young child, Jane, as they called her, knew hardships.At the age of two her mother died. Soon after, Addams had been struck with tuberculosis leaving her with a deformed spine. Still having her father to carry her through, she would try to live life as. While Jane Addams was in charge, Hull House was the best-known settlement house in the United States and became the flagship of a movement that included nearly five hundred settlements nationally by 1920. The hull house helped so many people come into the country and get settle in America instead of going into the country right away

When Jane Addams founded Hull-House in 1889 the idea was a new one and part of her work was in popularizing not only the settlement, but the ideas behind it. The first settlement, and the one that inspired Addams and Ellen Gates Starr to found Hull-House was Toynbee Hall, a British settlement located in London's East End that was founded in 1884 Related links. Jane Addams Hull-House Museum Jane Addams Facts: Nobel Prize.org Jane Addams Papers Project Swarthmore Peace Collection. Connecting Jane Addams & the Jane Addams Children's Book Award. The Jane Addams Children's Book Award: Honoring Children's Literature for Peace and Social Justice since 1953 by Susan C. Griffith. Scarecrow Press, 2013 Jane Laura Addams (* 6.September 1860 in Cedarville, Stephenson County, Illinois † 21. Mai 1935 in Chicago, Illinois) war eine US-amerikanische Feministin, Sozio und engagierte Journalistin der Friedensbewegung Anfang der 1920er Jahre. Sie war eine Wegbereiterin der Sozialen Arbeit und gründete 1889 in Chicago das Hull House, das heute als Museum besteht. 1931 erhielt sie zusammen mit. There, in the world's first settlement house, Toynbee Hall, Addams' and Starr's work continues: the Jane Addams Hull House Association helps an estimated 225,000 people each year

Jane Addams - Hull House, Biography & Progressive Era

  • Jane Addams first day cover with Hull-House's official cachet featuring an original sketch of the Hull-House courtyard by settlement artist and teacher Norah Hamilton. The Jane Addams Memorial Medal, designed by Nancy V. McCormick and produced by Medallic Art Company of New York, c. 1935, is depicted in the cachet with the medallion portrait image flopped to face right
  • Collection of sourced quotations by Jane Addams on settlement. Discover popular and famous settlement quotes by Jane Addams. [The Settlement House] must be grounded in a philosophy whose foundation is on the solidarity of the human race,.
  • Feb 5, 2016 - Explore Sharif Williams's board Settlement house, followed by 138 people on Pinterest. See more ideas about jane addams, history of psychology, visiting nurse
  • This guide provides a sample of resources for researching the history of Chicago's Hull-House Settlement House, its co-founders Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr, and their innovative staff. Skip to main content. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older
  • The Settlement House Movement History Essay. Jane Addams is among those social work pioneers who have done tremendous job for poor people living in urban areas Addams was an advocate of people who are poor and immigrants and looking for peace

. From Hull House, where she lived and worked from it's start in 1889 to her death in 1935, Jane Addams built her reputation as the country's most prominent women through her writings, settlement work and international efforts for world peace Jane Addams' funeral in the Hull House courtyard. (20) Louise Bowen, letter to a friend about the death of Jane Addams (27th May, 1035) Miss Jane Addams went to Passavant Hospital on the 18th May. The operation was performed on her that day but it was found that she had an incurable disease

Balch continued her interest in the settlement house movement, working with Jane Addams's Hull House in Chicago. She was active in promoting various child-welfare reforms and served on Massachusetts commissions on industrial education (1908-09) and immigration (1913-14) and on the Boston city planning board (1914-17) The Establishment of Hull House. In her late twenties, Jane Addams was deeply affected by the poverty in Chicago and the city's lack of social services for the poor. in September of 1889 Addams and her life-long friend Ellen Gates Starr established Hull House as Chicago's first settlement house. Hull House was modelled on Toynbee Hall,. . Since before the Revolutionary War, the United States had charity and welfare systems that offered services that had helped those less fortunate: the poor, orphans and other children, widows, wounded soldiers, the crippled and mentally ill Jane Addams began her lifelong crusade for justice and equality not long after she graduated from Rockford University when, in 1889, she established Hull-House in Chicago. There, she created a myriad of programs - nurseries, university courses, art classes, sports leagues - for people of all beliefs and ethnic backgrounds

.S. history because not only did she dedicated her life to helping the poor, but she helped to establish settlement houses that influenced those who were more fortunate to help others in their community who were less fortunate Jane Addams (1869-1935) is, perhaps, best known as a pioneering social worker and social activist, however she was also a committed internationalist and critical intellectual. She introduced and developed the idea of the settlement house to the United States (founding Hull House with Ellen Starr in 1889) campaigned for better social conditions and led investigations into various areas of.

Hull House - Wikipedi

English: Jane Addams (September 6, 1860 - May 21, 1935) was a founder of the U.S. Settlement House movement, and one of the first women to be awarded the Nobel Peace Priz El movimiento settlement fue un movimiento de reforma social que inició a comienzos de 1880 que trataba de disminuir la brecha social entre ricos y pobres, su objetivo principal fue el establecimiento de settlement houses, en áreas pobres urbanas donde vivirian y trabajarían voluntarios de clase media para compartir su conocimiento y cultura y reducir la pobreza en zonas de bajos ingresos Jane Addams (1860-1935) was best known for co-founding Chicago's Hull-House social settlement in 1889. A prolific writer and intellectual, Jane Addams was a popular speaker, commentator, and author, publishing eleven books and hundreds of articles on topics ranging from woman suffrage, child labor, immigration, peace, and democracy Jane Addams (1860-1935) cofounded the Hull House—one of the first settlement houses in the United States—in Chicago, Illinois, in 1889. She served as the first female president of the National Conference of Charities and Corrections and the first president of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom Jane Addams demonstrates an appreciation for the spirit of standpoint theory through her work and writing at Hull-House. Despite the privileged social position she was born into, her settlement avocation immersed her in disempowered communities

Nov 5, 2020 - Links and photos to go along with Episode 112 of The History Chicks Podcast. See more ideas about jane addams, history, hull house Jane Addams has long been an inspiration to me, first as a social worker. In one phase of my social work career, I worked in a settlement house in a poor neighborhood, networking a pilot public welfare program among many settlement houses in our area. I've also always had an inner compass that has led me to want to seek justice for all Jane Addams is widely recognized as a national leader in the settlement house movement, which began in the 1880's.. This movement demonstrated that even in the poorest communities, populated by people who lacked formal education all varieties of learning could flourish and spread

About Jane Addams — Jane Addams Hull-House Museu

  1. In the 1880s JaneAddams traveled to Europe. While she was in London, she visited a settlementhouse called Toynbee Hall. Settlementhouses were created to provide community services to ease urban problems such as poverty. Inspired by Toynbee Hall, Addams and her friend, Ellen Gates Starr, opened Hull House in a neighborhood of slums in Chicago.
  2. Tweet 1889 Jane Addams Settlement work in North America : Jane Addams (1860-1935) was born in Cedarville, Illinois in a well-off Quaker family. After her studies, she visited Toynbee Hall in London and was inspired to develop a very similar initiative in Chicago in 1889
  3. Jane Addams and the Settlement House Movement . 1. The 19 th ward in Chicago was home to a large number of immigrants.. Alderman Johnny Powers, was the Irish boss of the 19 th Ward and a member of the Chicago city council. He sold his vote and influence for a price
  4. Jane Addams—organizer, settlement house leader, and peace activist—is probably best remembered as the founder of Hull-House and the winner of the 1931 Nobel Peace Prize. Addams was the youngest of eight children, born to John Huy Addams, an Illinois state senator from 1854 to 1870.Senator Addams, a Quaker and an abolitionist, influenced his daughter's political views
  5. In 1889 Jane Addams opened the famous Hull House in Chicago. After the Hull House, settlement houses began to open across the whole country. These female reformers believed it was their Christian duty to improve living conditions of the poor

The most famous settlement house in the United States, after which most others were modeled, was Hull House in Chicago, founded in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr. Historians of the Progressive era have characterized the movement as an attempt of mostly upper-class women social reformers to Americanize immigrants ..2012 Jane Addams Jane Addams of Cedarville, Illinois, is anything except ordinary. She was a member and founder of the Settlement House Movement. Along with her companion Ellen Starr, Addams founded the Hull House, which is located in Chicago.If that is not enough, she was also the first woman from America to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize

Hull House History, Significance, Jane Addams, & Museum

  1. I returned to Illinois and, together with my friend Ellen Gates Starr, we created a social settlement in a place called Hull House in Chicago. And 30 years later it's still open. Inspired by Chapters 3 and 4 of 'Twenty Years at Hull House' by Jane Addams (1910) See also: Barack Obama community organiser (May 2014
  2. Jane Addams (September 6, 1860 - May 21, 1935) was the first American woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. In a long, complex career, she was a pioneer settlement worker, founder of Hull House in Chicago, public philosopher (the first American woman in that role), sociologist, author, and leader in woman suffrage and world peace
  3. Jane Addams's life of moral seriousness, lived in a community largely composed of women (although Hull-House was the first settlement to include both male and female residents), and her deeply.
  4. Hull House, Chicago's first and the nation's most influential settlement house, was established by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr on the Near West Side on September 18, 1889. By 1907, the converted 1856 mansion had expanded to a massive 13-building complex covering nearly a city block
  5. Addams opens up about how the Hull house will help benefit society. She attempts to treat of the subjective necessity for social settlements, to analyze the motives which underlie a movement based not only upon conviction, but genuine emotion
  6. In 1887, when Addams was 27 she was going through a major quarter life crisis. She was just kind of aimless at her stepmother's house when she read about a new idea called a settlement house. Settlement houses were popular in England, but hadn't yet made their way to the United States

Re-defining Democracy: Jane Addams and the Hull-House

  • Celebrate Women's History Month and join Jane Addams Hull-House Museum's Education Team to explore the lesser-known history of Jane Addams and Hull-House, the first settlement house in Chicago.. Explore the museum's two levels through a breathtaking 360° virtual walkthrough. Discover Addams's advocacy for women's political engagement beyond the domestic spheres in the current.
  • ing the dealings or disputes between persons without pursuing the matter through a trial
  • Jane Addams-founder of the first settlement house (Hull House), provided services such as a library, nursery, music school, etc.-fought to improve workplaces, housing, sanitation, advocated against child labor laws, women's rights, etc.-she started the settlement house movement
  • Die in Wohlstand aufgewachsene Jane lernte nach eigener Aussage, mit ca. sechs Jahren, zum ersten Mal die Armut kennen und stellte fest, dass when i grew up i should, of course, have a large house, but it would not be built among the other large houses, but right in the midst of horrid little houses (Addams 1910: 4f.). 1868 heiratete John Addams Anna Haldeman, die damit Janes Stiefmutter.

Jane Addams - Wikipedi

  • Jane Addams, The Subjective Necessity for Social Settlements (1892) Hull House, Chicago's famed settlement house, was designed to uplift urban populations. Here, Addams explains why she believes reformers must add the social function to democracy. As Addams explained, Hull House was opened on the theory that the.
  • Settlement houses, such as Jane Addams' Hull House, were extremely influential. These early Settlement Houses inspired others to take charge and organize more. In fact, by 1900, there were more than 100 settlements in America 15 were in Chicago. Eventually there were more than 400 settlements nationwide
  • ent and tireless social reformers. After graduating from Rockford College in Illinois in 1881 and studying medicine in Philadelphia, sh
  • Hull House is a settlement house in the United States that was co-founded in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr. Located in the Near West Side of Chicago, Illinois, Hull House opened its doors to the recently arrived European immigrants. By 1911, Hull House had grown to 13 buildings
  • Addams is mainly acclaimed for founding the Chicago social settlement, Hull House, which emerged as the flagship of the Settlement Movement. • On a trip to London, England, her and Ellen Gates Starr visited the famed Toynbee Hall, a special facility established to help the poor.They were so impressed by the settlement house that they sought to create one in Chicag
  • History of Hull House. In 1888, while on a tour of Europe, Jane Addams and Ellen Starr visited the university settlement of Toynbee Hall , in the East End of London.Named after the social reformer, Arnold Toynbee, the settlement was run by Samuel Augustus Barnett, canon of St. Jude's Church. Situated in Commercial Street, Whitechapel, Toynbee Hall was Britain's first university settlement

Jane Addams and the Hull House - YouTub

Fine, and Helen Rand, founders of the College Settlement Association (1887) and Jane Addams founder of Chicago's Hull House (1889). Of these pioneers, let us focus briefly on Addams, for although she was only one among many American settlement workers, she was the most well-known of them all Addams and Starr open the Hull-House settlement in 1889 in the heart of a run-down neighborhood on the west side of Chicago. They began with few plans, few resources and few residents but with a desire to be good neighbors to the community 30 quotes from Jane Addams: 'The good we secure for ourselves is precarious and uncertain until it is secured for all of us and incorporated into our common life.', 'True peace is not merely the absence of war, it is the presence of justice.', and 'Nothing could be worse than the fear that one had given up too soon, and left one unexpended effort that might have saved the world. Jane Addams looks back on 20 years at Hull House a settlement house in Chicago that she founded to ameliorate the effects of industrialization and immigration. These houses were set up in different cities throughout the country by people who were either rich or had access to money and wanted to dedicate their lives to charity Addams, Jane Jane Addams. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Jane Addams, a pioneer in social reform, founded Hull House, the first settlement house in the United States, to serve the immigrant families who came to Chicago at the beginning of the industrial revolution. For nearly fifty years, Addams worked relentlessly for improved living and working conditions for.

Jane Addams: Hull House - YouTub

  • 34 Jane Addams At Rockford College. Chicago Tribune (June 14, 1897): 8. Sharing the biases of the majority of American protestants towards Roman Catholicism, Addams apparently did not consider the local parishes as doing the same community building and civic work as Hull-House while she valorized immigrants and rejected restrictionist legislation, Addams was unaware of her inability to.
  • a house where immigrants came to live upon entering the U.S. At Settlement Houses, instruction was given in English and how to get a job, among other things. The first Settlement House was the Hull House, which was opened by Jane Addams in Chicago in 1889. These centers were usually run by educated middle class women
  • Jane Addams hit upon the idea of providing a similar opportunity for young middle-class American women, concluding that it would be a good thing to rent a house in a part of the city where many primitive and actual needs are found, in which young women who had been given over too exclusively to study might restore a balance of activity along traditional lines and learn of life from life itself
  • Jun 6, 2015 - Settlement houses, often pioneered and headed by women, were a key feature of social reform efforts in the late nineteenth and e..
  • When Jane Addams penned Twenty Years at Hull House: With Autobiographical Notes, she presented her life story as inextricably tied to her work in running a settlement house.Addams was born into an affluent family in Illinois, but comfort and leisure did not suit her. After spending much of her early life searching for outlets for progressive work, Addams became a reformer
  • Background: Jane Addams took the ideals of the Progressive Era and put them into practice.Hull-House, a settlement house co-founded by Addams and Ellen Gates Starr in 1889, was her incubator. Through a wide array of programs and activities, Addams and Starr endeavored to improve the lives of the residents of some of Chicago 's poorest neighborhoods

Jane Addams National Women's History Museu

  1. Want to learn more about Jane Addams and the amazing work her and the Hull-House Settlement Reformers did during the progressive era? Then check out our virtual tour made possible in partnership with Gail Borden Public Library, Schaumburg Township District Library, @aplibraryil, Arlington Heights Memorial Library, & Reaching Across Illinois Library Systems This 360-degree tour lets you enjoy.
  2. When we left Jane in part one, she and her friend Ellen Gates Starr had just opened Hull House. The Settlement movement in the US was about to take off, and in Chicago the community was embracing the work being done by Jane, Ellen and the many women like them that came to share their time and talents by settling in the impoverished, immigrant community and working together with neighbors to.
  3. g with immigrants of Russian, Polish, Italian, Irish, Greek, German, and Bohemian origin
  4. Jane Addams and Hull-House were the public face of the settlement movement in America. Addams and Ellen Gates Starr founded Hull-House in Chicago, Illinois in 1889. Hull-House was unique among settlements- it was not associated with a specific religion, and while it welcomed both male and female residents, the leadership positions were held be a cadre of college-educated women

Nineteenth-Century Settlement Houses - Jane Addams's Hull

Christian Progressives Respond to Urban Poverty: Jane Addams on Social Settlements In The Subjective Necessity of Social Settlements, written 125 years ago this summer, Jane Addams explains the combination of civic, social, and spiritual motives leading reformers of her generation—particularly women reformers—to found settlement houses in poor urban neighborhoods Both Jane Addams and Ellen Starr got help from wealthy people to make contribution in terms of money and time for development of an effective settlement house. The volunteers provided child and health care and even took care of the people who were suffering from illness and gave counseling sessions to people Jane Addams. This woman was horrified by the living conditions the new immigrants to America had to suffer, so in 1889, she turned a run-down house in the middle of Chicago into the Hull House a place to help new Americans find a job, opened a day care/ kindergarten, ran English classes, exposed the poor to art, adjust to life in the United States, and much more Jane Addams rejected the idea of getting married and having children in order to spend her life working for social reform, peace, and settlement work. Jane Addams read an article in 1887 in a magazine about the first settlement house in the world - Toynbee House in London. Jane Addams visited Toynbee House while on vacation in Europe. This. The Settlement House Movement In a way, the settlement house movement was an offshoot of the Social Gospel movement. It attracted idealistic reformers who believed it was their Christian duty to improve living conditions for the poor. During the late 1800s, reformers such as Jane Addams established settlement houses in poor neighborhoods

Jane addams 1. Jane Addams By Mackay Heasley, Lauren Steers and Summer Frederick 2. Biographical Information •Born September 6, 1860 in Cedarville Illinois •Died May 21, 1935 (Aged 74) •Youngest of Eight Children Born •Mother Died When she was two •Her father, John Addams, was Politically Prominent •Enjoyed Playing Outdoors, Reading, and Sunday school •Contracted Tuberculosis in. Chicago Tribune, May 22, 1935 Miss Jane Addams, founder of Hull House and for nearly half a century a leader in social settlement work, died at 6:15 o'clock last evening in Passavant hospital where she underwent an abdominal operation last Saturday. She was 74 years old. After her death the physicians disclosed for the first [


Jane Addams - Hull House, Biography and Progressive Era - HISTORY

Jane Addams (1860-1935) was born in Cedarville, Illinois in a well-off Quaker family. After her studies, she visited Toynbee Hall in London and was inspired to develop a very similar initiative in Chicago in 1889. Together with her friend Ellen Starr, she started Hull House , the first settlement house in Near West Side, a neighbourhood with plenty of European immigrants. It quickly developed into a real action centre with plenty of room for children, education for adults, culture and focus on social progress. Following the model of Toynbee Hall, “Addams refused to call her neighbors clients or cases and could not fully respect younger social workers, for whom service meant an eight-hour day and a home far from the slums.” (Franklin, 1986) Addams not only worked with the poor but also engaged in political action aimed at establishing new laws to protect them.

Addams assembled a group of very committed young women. They became the female face of the democratisation movement in the Progressive Era. From 1900 onwards the United States saw a wave of interest in women’s emancipation, new social laws and attention paid to social and racial tensions. The Hull House group professionalised the contribution of women in social work. With their neighbourhood work, they contributed to a more structural political focus.
They started from a profound analysis of real situations and by doing so contributed to later social science research. In the Hull House maps and papers they reported on the effects of concentration of different ethnicities and their living conditions, about labour circumstances in the sweatshops, about child labour. This work carried out by Julia Lathrop and Florence Kelley, among others. This approach to ‘mapping’ contributed to the emergence of the famous Chicago school in urban sociology with key figures like George Herbert Mead and Robert E. Park. For the academic researchers, Addams and her colleagues may have been seen just as data collectors, but for their own purposes their research was a tool and starting point for social action.

With the strong combination of professional interventions and structured research, Addams succeeded in establishing a specific basis for American social work which raised international interest. From the very beginning, Hull House received numerous visitors from abroad and many initiatives were launched there. Julia Lathrop later became the first director of the Children’s Federal Bureau (1912). She succeeded in raising concerns about child labour and child deaths.

The power of the settlement work translated to a broad social engagement of Jane Addams in which she combined here work for Hull House with a comparably passionate contribution to the peace movement during the First World War. That earned her the nickname Saint Jane. Four years before her death, she received the Nobel Prize for peace (1931).

This text was written by Jan Steyaert, based on the Dutch version by Wim Verzelen
Date of first publication: 03-2010
Date of latest revision: 04-2013

The work of Jane Addams’ is still actively remembered in the US. Hull House is a museum and in Illinois, the 10th of December each year is celebrated as Jane Addams Day. The social work department of the University of Illinois at Chicago is named after her: Jane Addams College of Social Work.


Jane Addams - Hull House, Biography and Progressive Era - HISTORY

A progressive social reformer and activist, Jane Addams was on the frontline of the settlement house movement in the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries. She later became internationally respected for the peace activism that ultimately won her a Nobel Peace Prize in 1931, the first American woman to receive this honor.

Born on September 6, 1860 in the small farming town of Cedarville, Illinois, Addams was the eighth of John Huy and Sarah Weber Addams’ nine children. Only five of the Addams children survived infancy. Her mother died in childbirth when Addams was only two years old. Nonetheless, she grew up with privilege her father was among the town’s wealthiest citizens. He owned a successful mill, fought in the Civil War, was a local politician, and counted Abraham Lincoln among his friends. Addams also grew up with liberal Christian values and a deep sense of social mission.

Addams graduated at the top of her class from Rockford Female Seminary in 1881. Part of a new generation of college-educated, independent women that historians have called “New Women,” she sought to put her education to greater use. Although her religiosity waned under the heavy Christianity of Rockford, her commitment to the greater good increased. For the next six years, she attempted to study medicine, but her own poor health derailed her. Addams found her true calling while in London with her friend Ellen Gates Starr in 1888. The pair visited Toynbee Hall, a settlement house on the city’s East End that provided much-needed services to poor industrial workers. Addams vowed to bring that model to the United States, which was in the early years of escalating industrialization and immigration.

In 1889, Addams and Starr founded Hull House in Chicago’s poor, industrial west side, the first settlement house in the United States. The goal was for educated women to share all kinds of knowledge, from basic skills to arts and literature with poorer people in the neighborhood. They also envisioned women living in the community center, among the people they served. Addams and Starr were joined in this effort by women who would become leading progressive reformers: Florence Kelley, Julia Lathrop, Sophonisba Breckinridge, Alice Hamilton, and Grace and Edith Abbott. Under Addams direction, the Hull House team provided an array of vital services to thousands of people each week: they established a kindergarten and day-care for working mothers provided job training English language, cooking, and acculturation classes for immigrants established a job-placement bureau, community center, gymnasium, and art gallery.

Aside from writing articles and giving speeches nationally about Hull House, Addams expanded her efforts to improve society. Along with other progressive women reformers, she was instrumental in successfully lobbying for the establishment of a juvenile court system, better urban sanitation and factory laws, protective labor legislation for women, and more playgrounds and kindergartens throughout Chicago. In 1907, Addams was a founding member of the National Child Labor Committee, which played a significant role in passage of a Federal Child Labor Law in 1916. Addams led an initiative to establish a School of Social Work at the University of Chicago, creating institutional support for a new profession for women. Addams also served as president of the National Conference of Charities and Corrections from 1909-1915, the first woman to hold that title, and became active in the women’s suffrage movement as an officer in the National American Women’s Suffrage Association and pro-suffrage columnist. She was also among the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

During World War I, Addams found her second major calling: promoting international peace. An avowed pacifist, she protested US entry into World War I, which dinged her popularity and prompted harsh criticism from some newspapers. Addams, however, believed human beings were capable of solving disputes without violence. She joined a group of women peace activists who toured the warring nations, hoping to bring about peace. In 1915, she headed the Women's Peace Party and shortly thereafter also became president of the International Congress of Women. Addams wrote articles and gave speeches worldwide promoting peace and she helped found the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom in 1919, serving as its president until 1929 and honorary president until her death in 1935. She was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for her efforts in 1931, the first American woman to receive the award. She also wrote a book about her work at Hull House, as well as other books promoting peace. A heart attack in 1926 took a toll on her health and though she pushed on, she never fully recovered. Addams died on May 21, 1935.

Addams, Jane. Twenty Years at Hull House with Autobiographical Notes. (New York: MacMillan, 1910).


Individual in History Theme

Jane Addams was an influential Progressive Era reformer, remembered best for founding Hull-House, a Chicago institution that sparked the spread of the settlement movement in the United States. Through Hull-House, Addams worked directly with Chicago’s immigrant communities and helped them advocate for their needs. She also formed a group of activists, mostly women, who worked together to fight to end to child labor, ensure workers rights legislation, win the vote for women, and establish the beginnings of the profession of social work. Through her writings and activities, Addams became one of the world’s best known women, and in the second half of her life she used her fame to promote the peace movement. In 1931, Addam was honored for this work -- she was the first American woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize.

What made Jane Addams the person that she was? How did her personality, education, habits, and experiences shape her into one of her era’s best-known and best-loved women? Out of the many women reformers of the Progressive Era who came out of Hull-House, why do we remember her?

One of Addams’ early inspirations was her father, John Huy Addams. He was a wealthy Illinois businessman and a state senator. John Addams was a friend of Abraham Lincoln who served in the Civil War. He valued education and made sure that his children -- both his son and daughters -- attended great schools. This was rare for women of Jane Addams’ time, and at Rockford Seminary Addams excelled and met lifelong friends and colleagues there. Once of her closest friends was Ellen Gates Starr. In 1888 the two travelled to England and were there inspired by Toynbee Hall, the first settlement house in the world.

Inspired to open their own settlement house in Chicago, Gates and Addams founded Hull-House. They modified the Toynbee model, focusing on women settlement workers, though Hull-House was always staffed by both men and women. Addams used her own funds and organizational skills to ensure Hull-House’s success, while Gates built a strong community of support among Chicago women, from connections made while teaching there. What made Hull-House unique and a model for other activists was the strong community of women that Addams surrounded herself with. They inspired one another as they delved into work to help children, immigrants, women, and workers in Chicago navigate a city and an era that had little protections and no safety nets.>

The Progressive Era is known for its great reformers, and Addams was at the center of most of its reform efforts. Addams worked with men like Theodore Roosevelt, W. E. B. Du Bois and John Dewey, and with women like Ida B. Wells, Carrie Chapman Catt, and Emily Greene Balch. She built a reputation, through her deeds, and through her speeches, articles and books, that appealed to the public and inspired people to act. Ordinary Americans wrote to tell her how her example had spurred them to action in their own communities. Her writings, in which she articulated her ideas about how America needed to change in order to provide social justice and opportunity for all, made her a household name. In 1910 Addams wrote an autobiography, Twenty Years At Hull-House, in which she reflected on her life, and explained how she was inspired to dedicate her life to reform.

In a world that was reluctant to listen to women, Addams was one who was heard. Addams believed that democracy was more than a political system, it was a way of life. She saw poverty as undemocratic as well as immoral. For her, democracy meant that everyone moved forward, not just some groups of people. But her philosophy was pragmatic -- always focused on applying moral ideas to human experiences. One of her key beliefs was the idea that in order for society to progress, all lives had to be bettered, not just the lives of the elite few. She challenged traditional gender roles that put men in charge of public affairs and relegated women to the home, taking care of family. Addams did not dispute that women had a natural affinity for the home and family, but she insisted that in a modern society, political participation was the only way that women could protect their children. Addams was an ardent supporter of woman suffrage, but believed that reason and cooperation was a better means to secure the vote than confrontation and anger. She wrote extensively on the reasons why women needed equal voting rights, speaking to women’s groups, on college campuses, and at suffrage conventions.

Addams’ experiences with her Hull-House neighbors taught her that working with with people was far more successful than working for them. She learned what her neighbors lives were like by seeing them and talking with them, which informed the way that she tried to help them. She believed that when people of different opinions got together with a spirit of cooperation, that results would come. Addams’ work with education, child labor reform, juvenile delinquency, and factory conditions all came out of her policy of learning the conditions first hand and working to solve them.

There are certain moments that defined Jane Addams’ life. The opening of Hull-House in 1889, her work for woman suffrage in 1906-1910, her entanglement with the Progressive Party, and her support for Theodore Roosevelt’s 1912 presidential campaign, and her efforts, starting in 1915 to work with pacifists to try to stop World War I. In her books and articles, she made the case for a philosophy of social justice and democracy. Addams’ published books include: Democracy and Social Ethics (1902), Newer Ideals of Peace (1907), The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets (1909), Twenty Years at Hull-House with Autobiographical Notes (1910), A New Conscience and an Ancient Evil (1912), The Long Road of Woman’s Memory, (1916), >Peace and Bread in Time of War (1922), The Second Twenty Years at Hull-House, September 1909 to September 1929, With aRecord of a Growing Consciousness (1930), The Excellent Becomes the Permanent (1932), and My Friend, Julia Lathrop. New York: Macmillan (1935).

Jane Addams’ impact on the modern world remains to this day. She was one of the founding members of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the Civil Liberties Union. Her Hull House Association continued to operate until 2012, after which the building became a museum. Her efforts to secure peace and social justice through the Women’s International League for Peace & Freedom continues to this day, and her work helped establish social work as a professional field.


Jane Addams

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Jane Addams, (born September 6, 1860, Cedarville, Illinois, U.S.—died May 21, 1935, Chicago, Illinois), American social reformer and pacifist, cowinner (with Nicholas Murray Butler) of the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1931. She is probably best known as a cofounder of Hull House in Chicago, one of the first social settlements in North America.

What is Jane Addams known for?

Jane Addams cofounded and led Hull House, one of the first settlement houses in North America. Hull House provided child care, practical and cultural training and education, and other services to the largely immigrant population of its Chicago neighbourhood. Addams also successfully advocated for social reform.

What were Jane Addams’s accomplishments?

Addams was the first woman president of the National Conference of Social Work. A pacifist, she served as president of the International Congress of Women in 1915 and founded the Woman’s Peace Party, the predecessor to the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom. Addams was a recipient of the 1931 Nobel Prize for Peace.

What were Jane Addams’s beliefs?

Addams believed that effective social reform required the more- and less-fortunate to get to know one another and also required research into the causes of poverty. She worked for protective legislation for children and women and advocated for labour reforms. She strove for justice for immigrants and African Americans, and she favoured women’s suffrage.

Addams graduated from Rockford Female Seminary in Illinois in 1881 and was granted a degree the following year when the institution became Rockford College. Following the death of her father in 1881, her own health problems, and an unhappy year at the Woman’s Medical College, Philadelphia, she was an invalid for two years. During neither subsequent travel in Europe in 1883–85 nor her stay in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1885–87 did she find a vocation.

In 1887–88 Addams returned to Europe with a Rockford classmate, Ellen Gates Starr. On a visit to the Toynbee Hall settlement house (founded 1884) in the Whitechapel industrial district in London, Addams’s vague leanings toward reform work crystallized. Upon returning to the United States, she and Starr determined to create something like Toynbee Hall. In a working-class immigrant district in Chicago, they acquired a large vacant residence built by Charles Hull in 1856, and, calling it Hull House, they moved into it on September 18, 1889. Eventually the settlement included 13 buildings and a playground, as well as a camp near Lake Geneva, Wisconsin. Many prominent social workers and reformers—Julia Lathrop, Florence Kelley, and Grace and Edith Abbott—came to live at Hull House, as did others who continued to make their living in business or the arts while helping Addams in settlement activities.

Among the facilities at Hull House were a day nursery, a gymnasium, a community kitchen, and a boarding club for working girls. Hull House offered college-level courses in various subjects, furnished training in art, music, and crafts such as bookbinding, and sponsored one of the earliest little-theatre groups, the Hull House Players. In addition to making available services and cultural opportunities for the largely immigrant population of the neighbourhood, Hull House afforded an opportunity for young social workers to acquire training.

Addams worked with labour as well as other reform groups toward goals including the first juvenile-court law, tenement-house regulation, an eight-hour working day for women, factory inspection, and workers’ compensation. She strove, in addition, for justice for immigrants and African Americans, advocated research aimed at determining the causes of poverty and crime, and supported women’s suffrage. In 1910 she became the first woman president of the National Conference of Social Work, and in 1912 she played an active part in the Progressive Party’s presidential campaign for Theodore Roosevelt. At The Hague in 1915 she served as chairman of the International Congress of Women, following which was established the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom. She was also involved in the founding of the American Civil Liberties Union in 1920. In 1931 she was a cowinner of the Nobel Prize for Peace.

The establishment of the Chicago campus of the University of Illinois in 1963 forced the Hull House Association to relocate its headquarters. The majority of its original buildings were demolished, but the Hull residence itself was preserved as a monument to Jane Addams.

Among Addams’s books are Democracy and Social Ethics (1902), Newer Ideals of Peace (1907), Twenty Years at Hull-House (1910), and The Second Twenty Years at Hull-House (1930).

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy McKenna, Senior Editor.


Tag: Progressive Party

Once upon a time in Chicago, there was an ambitious little politician who decided to make a name for himself by picking a fight with the women of Hull-House. For a man who built things for a living, perhaps he should have known better than to employ a political strategy of burning down the house. But he was new to politics, and he did not know better. He saw his path to power in the persona of “Battling Peter,” who would rattle the foundations of the city’s social reform structures to raise his voice above the progressive din. His political strategy was to attack social reformers in the city, particularly the female ones, and the institutions they supported.

Peter Bartzen, a 61-year-old proprietor of a mason and carpentry business, was that politician. The office he sought was President of the Cook County Board of Commissioners. During the fall of 1910, the fiery Democrat campaigned for that office by denouncing what he called the “hypocritical horde of reformers,” particularly the women of Hull-House. Politically ambitious with his eyes on a future gubernatorial run, Bartzen was a political novice. His only political experience was a four-year stint as an appointed building commissioner. To be governor, he needed a political victory and a message to launch his political career. With an “aggressive personality,” Bartzen decided to make a name for himself by whipping up foment against his city’s “child savers” and meddling do-gooders.

Bartzen was not a popular candidate, but the incumbent he hoped to unseat was not all that popular, either. Bartzen, who was not widely known, won the election on the coattails of a historic Democratic sweep, the county Democrats upsetting Republicans who had held power for sixteen years. The women Bartzen had maligned during his campaign for office had no direct say in the election, because women in Chicago, in Illinois, and in most states across the country, could not vote. No doubt that is precisely why Bartzen was so comfortable in his attacks against them. But when Bartzen took his seat, many prominent women reformers in Chicago set their watchful eyes upon the pesky, provocative politician.

During his first year in office, Bartzen did much to earn the disdain of Chicago reformers. For instance, he took aim at many of the county’s social service institutions, arguing that they were doing more harm than good to the county’s children and their families. In particular, he launched a full-scale investigation of the Chicago Juvenile Court in July 1911 in an effort to dismantle it. At the same time, Bartzen wholeheartedly embraced the long Chicago tradition of the spoils system by appointing his political allies to various posts under his authority, including some within the court itself. When Bartzen removed the juvenile court’s chief probation officer John Witter, a professional hired through the civil service system, he renewed his personal attacks against Hull-House, as well. In a public statement about Witter’s firing, Bartzen said: “It looks as if Mr. Witter has been under the influence of Hull-House. He ought not to be listening to a bunch of old women all the time.”

The “Old” Women of Hull-House (Julia Lathrop and Jane Addams with friend Mary Wilmarth, who was, actually, kind of old, but she didn’t live at Hull-House)

That bunch of old women was led by the 51-year-old Jane Addams, a nationally respected and beloved social reformer, and the 53-year-old Julia Lathrop, who helped found the influential Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy and was one of the city’s most prominent proponents of the Chicago Juvenile Court. Both of the women were a decade younger than Bartzen, but he dismissed them as members of the weaker sex, with no right to their opinions let alone their influence. Bartzen’s position was a powerful one. He presided over a fifteen-member board that controlled some $10 million and managed much of the county’s infrastructure and its public institutions, including its civil service system. But the city’s community of social reformers was also powerful, and Bartzen underestimated the women who led them.

In September 1911, Bartzen’s fight with the women of Hull-House escalated. When he made a particular play to discredit the work of the Chicago Juvenile Court and the Illinois Industrial School for Girls, Julia Lathrop fired back. In a public speech, Lathrop responded: “Both attacks have been made for the purposes of political capital…The noble minded women who have been working for the salvation of Chicago’s children made some errors. They were not serious errors, but they were enough to give politicians a peg on which to hang an investigation.” The court had suffered some growing pains, but the court’s founders and supporters were willing to recognize problems and work to correct them. As well, the Chicago Woman’s Club and the Juvenile Protective Association, which included some very well-heeled and outspoken women, loudly reaffirmed their support of the institution in the wake of what they believed were unwarranted, politically motivated attacks against it.

Reformers in Chicago were eager to defend the court and its mission to help disadvantaged youth escape the harsh justice of the criminal courts. They were growing particularly concerned about Bartzen replacing qualified probation officers working with the juvenile court with political hacks. Just days after Lathrop’s defensive stand against Bartzen, Dr. James A. Britton, the chief medical officer of the city’s juvenile home, resigned his post in protest. He charged that Bartzen was thumbing his nose at civil service law, which provided qualified professional probation officers to the juvenile court, and that Bartzen was “loading up the county service with political friends.” Britton was a Hull-House resident and the husband of Gertrude Howe Britton, another Hull-House resident, who was also affiliated with the Juvenile Protective Association. Mrs. Britton was just 43-years-old, but Bartzen no doubt dismissed her, and likely her husband, too, as meddling Hull-House do-gooders. Bartzan was leaving in his political wake a long list of scorned old women at Hull-House.

During the next year, Bartzen did not change his colors, and neither did the old women of Hull-House. Bartzen continued to undermine the civil service system and threaten the life of the city’s social institutions and the city’s reformers grew increasingly certain Bartzen was a dangerous political incumbent. In the fall of 1912, Jane Addams decided to beat Bartzen at his own game: politics. She led a group of the city’s reform-minded citizens, most of them men with political clout, to select a candidate to defeat Bartzen in the November 1912 election. The committee chose Alexander A. McCormick, a former newspaper editor and progressive thinker. In August, Addams sent a telegram home to Chicago while she was vacationing in Maine, indicating the reformers’ choice: “Social workers have much to do in persuading A A McCormick to run for president of county board.” Addams believed a failure to defeat Bartzen would spell the “destruction of juvenile court.”

Jane Addams (at right) in a parade for woman suffrage.

McCormick agreed to run on a Progressive Party ticket, and Addams’s political committee went to work. The campaign against Bartzen was ruthless, focused as it was on exposing him as a danger to the county’s most vulnerable citizens. Women led the charge, giving speeches and writing letters. On Nov. 2, 1912, on the Saturday just before the election, Addams and her committee behind McCormick published in the Chicago newspapers a signed circular entitled “Call to Public Service in the Interest of the Poor, Sick, Aged and Injured, and the Helpless Children of Chicago and Cook County.” The document skewered Bartzen’s policies, accused him of wasting public funds, asserted his guilt in “crimes of neglect and mismanagement of the Cook County Hospital,” and called his attack on the juvenile court “misleading and fraudulent.” In summary, the circular cautioned readers: “A vote for Peter Bartzen means a vote for the continued demoralization of all the public service institutions of the county, on which Bartzen and his henchmen have feasted while the dependents of the county have starved and been neglected.”

It is true that 1912 was a weird political year, with the role of a spunky third party mixing things up at the local, state, and national levels. The “Bull Moose” factor definitely influenced the Cook County elections. However, Bartzen’s particular reelection chances appeared to have lost traction on the heels of Chicago’s old women weighing in so loudly on his political record. Bartzen’s political strategy of picking a fight with Hull-House and Chicago’s most respected citizen backfired, and he lost the election.

The ambitious little politician had underestimated the old women at Hull-House and the political power they could garner, even without the right to vote for themselves. Bartzen not only lost this election, but he did not become the governor of Illinois, either. Even his obituary in 1933 dismissed his brief political career as minor, remembering his tenure as “anything but peaceful.” In the end, “Battling Peter” lost his battle against the battle-tested old women of Hull-House. While those women continued to make their positive marks on the history of Chicago, history resigned Bartzen to the political dustbin.

In 1914, Jane Addams published an article in the Ladies’ Home Journal in which she hailed the value of women over the age of fifty. “The weariness and dullness, which inhere in both domestic and social affairs when they are carried on by men alone, will no longer be a necessary attribute of public life when such gracious and gray-haired women become a part of it,” she wrote. “Ever-widening channels are gradually being provided through which woman’s increasing moral energy may flow, and it is not too much to predict that in the end public affairs will be amazingly revivified from those new fountainheads fed in the upper reaches of woman’s matured capacity.”

In the article, Addams shouted praise to “old” women like Ella Flagg Young, the Chicago Superintendent of Schools novelist Edith Wharton and Dr. Anna Howard Shaw, the long-running president of the National-American Woman Suffrage Association. Jane Addams knew the fight that resided in the hearts of experienced, capable, older women. She understood the beautiful extent of possibilities for women who used their talents for the betterment of their communities and the world. Peter Bartzen probably didn’t read that Ladies’ Home Journal article, and he may have never admitted to himself or to anyone else that he had been undone by women. Who knows if he harbored any regrets about his brief political career or the choices he made to conduct it.

The story of the politician and the old women of Hull-House is not a fairytale in which the villains are defeated and heroes in the story live happily ever after. Real life is more complicated than that. But this story is, perhaps, a fable Aesop himself may have written if he had lived in Chicago during the Progressive Era, when Jane Addams and scores of smart, capable, and commanding older women roamed the city’s dirty streets in order to clean them up. The moral of that fable is this: Beware the people you look past in your blind ambition beware the people who seem to be precisely what you assume, unthreatening and unworthy of your respect. They might just turn out to be the clever, unrelenting, powerful force that becomes the fatal obstacle you never expected.

By Stacy Pratt McDermott, Associate Editor

Notes: David S. Tanenhaus, Juvenile Justice in the Making (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004), 82-110 Albert Nelson Marquis, ed., Book of Chicagoans, 1911 (Chicago: A. N. Marquis & Co., 1911), 42-43 Illinois, Deaths and Stillbirths Index, 1916-1947 Witter v. County Commissioners, 256 Ill. 616 (1912) “Editorial Musings,” The Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL), Nov. 4, 1910, p. 1 Letter, Nov. 5, 1910, “Busse-Deneen Ring Is Smashed in Cook County by Democratic Victory,” Nov. 9, 1910, p. 1 “Would End Juvenile Court,” Chicago Tribune, July 30, 1911, p. 7 “Fight New Child Court Idea,” Chicago Tribune, Aug. 1, 1911, p. 4 “Bartzen Scored by Julia Lathrop,” Chicago Tribune, Sep. 24, 1911, p. 5 “Physician Quits Bartzen Regime,” Chicago Tribune, Sep. 26, 1911, p. 3 “Call to Public Service,” Nov. 2, 1912, p. 5 “Sociologists Say Bartzen Is Menace,” The Inter Ocean (Chicago), Nov. 2, 1912, p. 5 “Chicago Women, In Humane Plea, Flay Bartzen,” The Inter Ocean, Nov. 2, 1912, p. 1 “Save the Helpless From Bartzen,” The Inter Ocean, Nov. 4, 1912, p. 6 “Old and New County Board Presidents Shake Hands,” Chicago Tribune, Dec. 1, 1912, p. 3 “Peter Bartzen, Old Political Battler, Dead,” Chicago Tribune, Apr. 8, 1933, p. 1 Jane Addams to Julia Clifford Lathrop, August 7, 1911 Endorsement for Alexander McCormick for Cook County Board of Commissioners, 1912 Jane Addams to Alexander Agnew McCormick, August 21, 1912 Jane Addams to Charles E. Merriam, August 21, 1912 Jane Addams to Raymond Robins, August 21, 1912 Raymond Robins to Jane Addams, August 22, 1912 Need a Woman Over Fifty Feel Old?, October, 1914, all in Jane Addams Digital Edition.


Jane Addams and Lillian Wald: Imagining Social Justice from the Outside

Michael Bronski is the Professor of the Practice in Activism and Media in the Studies of Women, Gender, and Sexuality at Harvard University. Author of numerous books, he has been an activist and has written about LGBTQ issues for nearly five decades.

Jane Addams (left) and Lilian Wald (right)

Anyone who has taken a United States history course in high school knows the story of Jane Addams and Chicago&rsquos Hull House, the first Settlement House in America and arguably the genesis of social work in the country. More advanced textbooks may even have discussed Lillian Wald, founder of New York&rsquos Henry Street Settlement House, who was instrumental in introducing the concept of &ldquopublic health&rdquo &ndash and the important epidemiological axiom that physical well being is inseparable from economic and living conditions.

What no one learned in high school, or later, was that Addams and Wald were women who loved other women and that these relationships &ndash as well as the female friendship networks in which they were involved &ndash were profoundly instrumental to their vision of social justice that changed America.

Since its founding &ndash even amid deep seated prejudices and politics of exclusion and animus &ndash there has been an American impulse to help the less advantaged. This was the kinder aspect of Winthrop&rsquos 1630 sermon &ldquoThe City on the Hill&rdquo (also know as &ldquoA Model of Christian Charity&rdquo) and the sentiment was evident in George W. H. Bush&rsquos 1988 &ldquoA Thousand Points of Light&rdquo speech. Helping fellow countrymen &ndash at least those deemed worthy of help &ndash was a social and political virtue.

What Jane Addams and Lillian Wald did was different. They imagined an America in which helping the poor was not charity but a work of democracy and a demonstration of equality. Addams and Wald, and many other women like them, were complicated products of the traditional American impulseforcharity and the massive reforms of the progressive era. What made them distinct was that their status as single women, and as lovers of women, gave them an outsider status that allowed them to envision different ways of structuring society.

Jane Addams, born in 1860, grew up in what looked like a nineteenth-century picture-book American home in Cedarville, Illinois with servants and farmhands. Her family was prosperous and owned factories that produced wool and flour. Her father, friends with Abraham Lincoln, was an abolitionist and progressive and raised his children likewise. While attending Rockford Female Seminary in Rockford, Illinois, Addams met Ellen Gates Starr and the two became a couple, exchanging constant letters while they were apart. In 1885 Starr wrote to her:

My Dear, It has occurred to me that it might just be possible that you would spend a night with me if you should be going east at the right time. If you decide to go the week before Christmas - I mean - what do I mean? I think it is this. Couldn't you decide to spend the Sunday before Christmas with me? Get here on Saturday and go on Monday? . . . Please forgive me for writing three letters in a week

In 1887, after hearing about Toynbee Hall in London&rsquos impoverished East End neighborhood of London, Addams became intrigued with the new concept of a settlement house: group living in poor neighborhoods that brought local women, men, and children together with teachers, artists, and counselors from various backgrounds. Today, we might call the concept &ldquointentional living groups.&rdquo These collectives &ndash often funded by wealthy people &ndash offered education, health care, arts training, day care, meals, and emotional support for the economically disadvantaged. Addams and Starr visited Toynbee House and decided to open something similar in Chicago. In 1889 they opened Hull House with the charter &ldquoto provide a center for the higher civic and social life to institute and maintain educational and philanthropic enterprises, and to investigate and improve the conditions in the industrial districts of Chicago.&rdquo Later, after Addams and Starr separated, her new lover Mary Rozer Smith joined her in this grand social experiment.

Lillian Wald had a similar story. Born into a comfortable, middle-class Jewish family in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1867 she was raised in Rochester, New York. Although she was a brilliant student, she was tuned down by Vassar College because she was considered too young at age 16. Instead, she later went to nursing school. Inspired by Jane Addams and Hull House, upon graduating, Wald and her close friend Mary Brewster moved into a tenement in the immigrant communities of New York&rsquos Lower East Side and began their nursing careers. They believed that nursing involved more than physical care. It was important for them, and other nurses, to live in the neighborhoods of the people for whom they cared and to address the social and economic problems as much as the physical ills. Wald coined the term &ldquopublic health nurse&rdquo to convey the broad swath of this goal. Soon, Wald and Brewster moved into a home on Henry Street that eventually became the Henry Street Settlement. This became a model of community-based health initiatives and eventually the Visiting Nurse Service grew out of this work. By 1910, there were 12 branches of Henry Street Settlement throughout the city, 54 nurses, and 15,492 patients.

Wald and Brewster received emotional and financial support from many women, and some men. But, much of the core of Henry Street Settlement was formed around a close network of single women, who among themselves had a complex series of personal friendships and romantic relationships. The Manhattan socialite, and daughter of a prominent New York minister, Mabel Hyde Kittredge, for example, worked at Henry Street Settlement for many years and was an intimate friend to Wald. In the early years of their friendship she wrote to Wald:

I seemed to hold you in my arms and whisper all of this. . . . If you want me to stay all night tomorrow night just say so when you see me. . . . Then I can hear you say "I love you"-and again and again I can see in your eyes the strength, and the power and the truth that I love.

Wald had a vast network of women friends &ndash lovingly referred to as her &ldquosteadies&rdquo &ndash and at the end of her life she said &ldquoI am a very happy women. because I&rsquove had so many people to love, and so many who have loved me.&rdquo

What does it matter that Addams and Weld were women who loved women? Addams had two major loves in her life, with whom she shared work, a vision and a bed. Wald&rsquos relationships were less dedicated, but no less intense. Would they have been able to do this important work if they had been heterosexual, married and probably mothers? Certainly there were many married women &ndash from Julia Ward Howe in the mid-nineteenth century to Eleanor Roosevelt in the mid-twentieth century &ndash who partook in public life, public service, and social reform. What set Addams and Wald and their friendship circles apart was that they were outsiders to social conventions.

In a world dominated by heterosexual expectations being a single woman culturally set you apart in ways that were dismissive &ndash words and phases such as &ldquospinster&rdquo and &ldquoold maid&rdquo &ndash but also liberating: you were not burdened with the duties of marriage and motherhood. Addams and Wald were also fortunate to come from wealthy families which gave them the ability to dictate their own life choices. With limited opportunities for gainful employment, many women understood that marriage was their best path to economic security. As women unattached to male spouses, Adaams and Wald were able to break from the traditional methods of female giving such as the ideology of motherly love or the distanced, munificent &ldquolady bountiful.&rdquo

Yet there is something else here as well. Unburdened by the expectations of heterosexual marriage these women imagined and explored new ways of organizing the world. They created new social and housing structures &ndash extended non-biological families &ndash that were more efficient and more capable of taking care of a wealth of human social, physical and emotional needs. In large part they were able to do this because they did not rely on the traditional model of heterosexual marriage and home as the building block of society. Instead, they rejected this model.

Historian Blanche Wiesen Cook has written extensively on how these female friendship circles &ndash precisely because they were homosocial, and in many cases homosexual &ndash were able to transform American social and political life with a new vision of how to organize society and conceptualize how to care for family is the largest sense of the word. Such a vision is not only profoundly American, it is the essence of social justice.


Addams, Jane

Jane Addams was a famous activist, social worker, author, and Nobel Peace Prize winner, and she is best known for founding the Hull House in Chicago, IL. Hull House was a progressive social settlement aimed at reducing poverty by providing social services and education to working class immigrants and laborers (Harvard University Library, n.d.).

Jane Addams was born in Cedarville, IL in 1860, and she graduated from Rockford College in 1882. In 1888, while traveling in London, Addams visited the settlement house Toynbee Hall (Harvard University Library, n.d.). Her experiences at Toynbee Hall inspired her to recreate the social services model in Chicago. In 1889, she leased a large home built by Charles Hull, which she chose for its “diversity and variety of activity for which it presented an opportunity.” In her essay, “The Subjective Necessity for Social Settlements,” Addams stated that the settlement movement existed to add social function to political democracy, to assist the progress of humanity, and to express Christianity through humanitarian action (Tims, 1961).

Thus, with Hull House, Addams proposed to “provide a center for a higher civic and social life, to institute and maintain educational and philanthropic enterprises, and to investigate and improve the conditions in the industrial districts in Chicago” (Harvard University Library, n.d.). Addams sought to foster a place where social progress, education, democracy, ethics, art, religion, peace, and happiness could all be daily experiences (Tims, 1961). Hull House offered kindergarten and day care for children of working mothers, an art gallery, libraries, music and art classes, and an employment bureau. By its second year of operation, Hull House served more than 2,000 residents weekly. By 1900, Hull House expanded to include a book bindery, gym, pool, cooperative for working women, theater, labor museum, and meeting space for trade unions (Harvard University Library, n.d.).

Florence Kelley , Alice Hamilton , Julia Lathrop , Ellen Gates Starr , Sophonisba Breckinridge , and Grace and Edith Abbott joined Jane Addams at Hull House. They helped to launch numerous important social programs, including the Immigrants’ Protective League, the Juvenile Protective Association, which was the first juvenile court in the U.S., and the Juvenile Psychopathic Clinic, later called the Institute for Juvenile Research. Moreover, these women helped enact protective legislation for women and children, child labor regulations, and mandatory minimum education laws. (Harvard University Library, n.d.). Thanks to Addams, this group of women was able to not only create a “cathedral of humanity” for the underserved, but also address civic and state legislation (Tims, 1961).

Addams became a prolific writer and speaker, and she helped to found the National Child Labor Committee . This committee, chartered by Congress in 1907, led to the creation of the Federal Children’s Bureau in 1912 and passage of the Federal Child Labor Law in 1916. Furthermore, Addams was a leader in the National Consumers League, the first woman president of the National Conference of Charities and Corrections , later called the National Conference of Social Work , chairwoman of the Labor Committee of the General Federation of Women’s Clubs, vice president of the Campfire Girls , and on the executive boards of the National Playground Association, National Child Labor Committee, and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) . Additionally, Addams campaigned for women’s suffrage and the founding of the American Civil Liberties Union in 1920. (Harvard University Library, n.d.).

In the early 20th century, Addams became active in the international peace movement. She opposed American involvement in the First World War, a controversial opinion which led to her expulsion from the Daughters of the American Revolution. Nevertheless, Addams was asked to serve as Herbert Hoover ’s assistant in providing relief supplies to women and children in enemy nations. This story is captured her Peace and Bread in the Time of War (1922). Addams continued to be a leading pacifist through her work with the Women’s Peace Party, which became the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (Harvard University Library, n.d.). While she was demonstrably involved in political action for peace, Addams, too, emphasized the importance of rediscovering humanity’s ability to foster compassion and goodness in light of large-scale warfare (Tims, 1961).

Jane Addams was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931, and she continued to live and work at Hull House until she died in 1935. (Harvard University Library, n.d.).

This work may also be read through the Internet Archive.

Addams, J. (1899). The Subtle Problems of Charity. Atlantic Monthly, 83 (496), February.

Elshtain, J. B. (2002). The Jane Addams reader . New York, NY: Basic Books.

Harvard University Library. (n.d.). Jane Addams (1860-1935). Harvard University Library Open Collections Program . Retrieved from http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/ww/addams.html

Tims, M. (1961). Jane Addams of Hull House, 1860-1935: A centenary study . London, UK: Ruskin House.


Sources:

Addams, Jane. Twenty Years at Hull House. NY: Macmillan, 1910.

——. Newer Ideals of Peace. NY: Macmillan, 1907.

——. The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets. NY: Macmillan, 1912.

Davis, Allen Freeman. American Heroine: The Life and Legend of Jane Addams. NY: Oxford University Press, 1973.

Farrell, John C. Beloved Lady. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1967.

Lasch, Christopher. The New Radicalism in America: The Intellectual as a Social Type. NY: Knopf, 1965.

Levine, Daniel. Jane Addams and the Liberal Tradition. Madison, WI: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1971.

Patrick Allitt , Assistant Professor of History, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia


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